Unit 4 - Evolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4 - Evolution Deck (30):
1

Sources of variation?

1. Mutations
2. Genetic recombination in sexual reproduction
3. Lateral gene transfer in asexual reproduction

2

Things that affect variation?

1. Genetic drift
-Bottle neck and founder's effect
2. Gene flow
3. Natural selection

3

3 types of selection (graphs)?

Directional, stabilizing, disruptive

4

6 main aspect's in Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection?

Struggle for existence
Variation and adaptation
Survival of the fittest
Fitness
Adaptation
Common descent

5

What are the different types of evidence of evolution?

-Fossil record
-Geographic distribution
-Comparative anatomy
-Biochemistry

6

Types of comparative anatomy?

-Homologous
-Analogous
-Vestigial
-Embryology

7

Difference between homologous and analogous structures?

H: same structure, different function
A: different structure, same function

8

Embryology

Study of an organism before birth?

9

To be a specie, a group of organism must be able to...

1. Reproduce
2. Produce fertile offspring

10

3 types of reproductive isolation?

Behavioral
Geographical
Temporal

11

Organization in Taxonomy?

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

12

Fitness is the ability to...

1. Survive
2. Reproduce in specific environment

13

What is gene flow?

Migration of individuals between populations

14

What is genetic drift?

Random change within a small population

15

How do humans decrease habitat and biodiversity?

-Deforestation
-Over hunting/fishing/poaching

16

How do humans change the climate?

Global climate change (global warming)

17

What is a pathogen?

Infectious agent that causes disease by disrupting body's balance

18

Why is Ecoli needed?

Helps with digestion in intestons

19

What are the non-specific defenses and their lines?

1st line - skin, mucus, tears and saliva barriers
2nd line - inflammation, fever, chemical inhibitors

20

What are the specific defenses and their immunities?

Cell-mediated immunity - T-cells seek and destroy foreign particles
Humoral immunity - B-cells release antibodies to destroy foreign particles

21

Ways to help immune system?

Active immunity
Passive immunity

22

Difference between active and passive immunity?

A: vaccines injected, body makes antibodies
P: body injected with temporary antibodies

23

What happens in the lysogenic cycle?

Virus attacks cell, inserts DNA. Cell divides, creating new cells with virus DNA.

24

What happens in the lytic cycle?

Virus DNA in replicated cells wakes up and takes over cell. Cell produces more viruses, which eventually burst out of cell and attach itself to other cells.

25

Why are viruses nonliving?

It needs a cell host to reproduce

26

Difference between lysogenic and lytic cycles in one word?

Lyso: dormant
Lytic: virulent

27

Difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

P: No nucleus, bacteria, asexual reproduction
E: Nucleus, everything else, sexual and asexual reproduction

28

How are viruses similar and different to living things?

S: DNA/RNA
D: Viruses don't need food or water, can't reproduce on own

29

Why isn't there a vaccine for HIV?

Viruses evolve

30

How does Global Warming affect biodiversity?

-Destroys habitats
-Dramatic weather patterns