Chapter 1/2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1/2 Deck (54):
1

Emergent property

property around substance

2

Reductionism

Reduction of complex systems to more managable systems to study

3

What is the balance of reductionism with understanding emergent property

Systems Biology

4

System is ____

combination of components that function together

5

What is the goal of systems biology?

Construct models for behavior of whole biological systems

6

What are the 2 operations of an ecosystem?

1. Nutrients cycle
2. Sunlight cycle

7

While chemical nutrients are _______, energy enters as ______ and exits as ______

recycled through ecosystem, light, heat

8

In all energy conversions, what happens?

Some is converted to thermal energy that is left as heat

9

Structure and ____ are correllated

function

10

Difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?

E: nucleus in center, organelles membrane-enclosed
P: DNA not seperated, no membrane enclosure

11

Genes along DNA encode info for what?

Building cells/proteins

12

Each chain link in DNA is made of what?

1 out of 4 nucleotides

13

Genes program the cells production of what?

Proteins

14

DNA provides this, while proteins do what?

-Blueprint
-Carry it out

15

What is a genome

Whole library of genetic instruction

16

What is feedback

Mechanism that self-regulates processes

17

In a negative feedback, what happens?

The end substance inhibits enzyme earlier in process to slow down

18

In a positive feedback, what happens?

The end substance stimulates enzyme earlier in process to quicken it

19

What are the 3 domains?

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

20

Other than protista kingdoms, what are the 3 kingdoms in the eukaryote domain? What are the differences between the 3?

-Plantae: photosynthesis
-Fungi: absorbs nutrients
-Animalia: ingestion

21

What are Darwin's 2 points?

1. Species rose from a succession of ancestors
2. The mechanism for this is natural selection

22

An ancestral species can multiply to 2 if what happens?

Population is fragmented in different environments

23

What are the 2 types of inquiry?

1. Discovery science: describing
2. Hypothesis-based science: explaining

24

Trace elements

Elements required by organisms in small sizes

25

What measures the mass of atoms and subatomic particles

Dalton

26

Atomic number

Number of protons

27

Mass number

Sum of protons and neutrons in nucleus

28

Atomic mass

Total mass of an atom (usually same as mass number)

29

Isotopes differ from normal atoms in that they...

have more neutrons

30

Radioactive isotope

Too many neutrons, nucleus decays and randomly gives off particles and energy

31

If an atom turns radioactive, what can happen?

It can change elements

32

Energy

Capacity to cause change

33

Potential energy

Energy matter possesses because of location and structure

34

Electron shells

Distance from nucleus means more energy absorbed

35

Valence electrons

Electrons on outermost shell

36

Valence shell

Outermost shell

37

When an atom is inert, what has happened?

It's valence shell has been filled

38

Orbital

3D space where electron is found most often

39

Atoms are held together by _______

chemical bonds

40

Covalent bond

Pair of valence electrons shared by 2 atoms

41

The H2 molecule has what kind of bond?

Single bond/nonpolar covalent

42

Double bond

2 pairs of electrons shared

43

Valence

Bonding capacity

44

Electronegativity

Tendency of atom to attract atoms

45

Nonpolar covalent bond

Atoms equal in electronegativity, electrons shared

46

Polar covalent bond

One atom more electronegative, creating positive/negative end

47

Ionic bond

Two atoms so unequal in attraction that an electron is taken (attraction of cation and anion

48

Sodium and chlorine form what kind of bond?

Ionic

49

Ion

Charged atom

50

Cation

Positive charged atom

51

Anion

Negative charged atom

52

In NaCl, which atom is the cation/anion?

Cation: sodium, anion: chlorine

53

Hydrogen bond

Hydrogen atom covalently bonded to electronegative atom also attracted to another electronegative atom

54

Ionic compounds/salts

Compounds formed by ionic bonds