Flashcards in Chapter 1/2 Deck (54):
property around substance
Reduction of complex systems to more managable systems to study
What is the balance of reductionism with understanding emergent property
System is ____
combination of components that function together
What is the goal of systems biology?
Construct models for behavior of whole biological systems
What are the 2 operations of an ecosystem?
1. Nutrients cycle
2. Sunlight cycle
While chemical nutrients are _______, energy enters as ______ and exits as ______
recycled through ecosystem, light, heat
In all energy conversions, what happens?
Some is converted to thermal energy that is left as heat
Structure and ____ are correllated
Difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
E: nucleus in center, organelles membrane-enclosed
P: DNA not seperated, no membrane enclosure
Genes along DNA encode info for what?
Each chain link in DNA is made of what?
1 out of 4 nucleotides
Genes program the cells production of what?
DNA provides this, while proteins do what?
-Carry it out
What is a genome
Whole library of genetic instruction
What is feedback
Mechanism that self-regulates processes
In a negative feedback, what happens?
The end substance inhibits enzyme earlier in process to slow down
In a positive feedback, what happens?
The end substance stimulates enzyme earlier in process to quicken it
What are the 3 domains?
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Other than protista kingdoms, what are the 3 kingdoms in the eukaryote domain? What are the differences between the 3?
-Fungi: absorbs nutrients
What are Darwin's 2 points?
1. Species rose from a succession of ancestors
2. The mechanism for this is natural selection
An ancestral species can multiply to 2 if what happens?
Population is fragmented in different environments
What are the 2 types of inquiry?
1. Discovery science: describing
2. Hypothesis-based science: explaining
Elements required by organisms in small sizes
What measures the mass of atoms and subatomic particles
Number of protons
Sum of protons and neutrons in nucleus
Total mass of an atom (usually same as mass number)
Isotopes differ from normal atoms in that they...
have more neutrons
Too many neutrons, nucleus decays and randomly gives off particles and energy
If an atom turns radioactive, what can happen?
It can change elements
Capacity to cause change
Energy matter possesses because of location and structure
Distance from nucleus means more energy absorbed
Electrons on outermost shell
When an atom is inert, what has happened?
It's valence shell has been filled
3D space where electron is found most often
Atoms are held together by _______
Pair of valence electrons shared by 2 atoms
The H2 molecule has what kind of bond?
Single bond/nonpolar covalent
2 pairs of electrons shared
Tendency of atom to attract atoms
Nonpolar covalent bond
Atoms equal in electronegativity, electrons shared
Polar covalent bond
One atom more electronegative, creating positive/negative end
Two atoms so unequal in attraction that an electron is taken (attraction of cation and anion
Sodium and chlorine form what kind of bond?
Positive charged atom
Negative charged atom
In NaCl, which atom is the cation/anion?
Cation: sodium, anion: chlorine
Hydrogen atom covalently bonded to electronegative atom also attracted to another electronegative atom