Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Chapter 11 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (25):
1

What suggests signal molecules evolved in prokaryotes?

Signal transduction pathway similarities

2

What are the 2 forms of communication in local signaling?

-Direct contact and transfer between cell junctions
-Cell-to-cell recognition

3

Local regulator

Messenger molecule that travels short distances

4

What type of messenger is a growth factor?

Local regulator

5

What is the initial transduction of a signal?

Shape change of receptor

6

What are the three types of membrane receptors?

-G protein-coupled receptors
-Receptor tyrosine kinases
-Ion channel receptors

7

What is attached to the tyrosines in receptor tyrosine kinase pathways?

Phosphate group

8

What forms of messengers can cross membrane? As in, what are the physical characteristics of them?

Small or hydrophobic

9

A steroid is what kind of messenger?

Hydrophobic

10

An activated hormone-receptor complex acts as ______

transcription factor

11

What is the benefit of a multistep pathway?

Amplification of signal, coordination and regulation

12

Protein kinase

Proteins that phosphorylate proteins (transfer phosphate from ATP to protein)

13

Protein phosphatases

Proteins that dephosphorylate proteins (remove phosphates from proteins)

14

Second messenger

Small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecules that spread through cell by diffusion

15

In certain pathways, ______ _______ creates cAMP. How so?

-Adenylyl cyclase
-Converting ATP to cAMP

16

How is a G protein activated?

When its GDP is switched with a GTP

17

What does cAMP typically do after it is created?

Phosphorylates protein kinase A

18

In certain pathways, second messengers ______ and ______ lead to release of calcium into cell.

-IP3
-DAG

19

Why is there such a large concentration of calcium ions in the ER?

Calcium ions are actively imported from cytoplasm

20

Many pathways regulate synthesis of enzymes and various proteins, usually by...
Other pathways do what?

-turning genes on or off in the nucleus
-regulate activity of enzymes and proteins

21

At each step in a cascade, what is greater than in the previous step?

Number of activated products

22

Scaffolding proteins

Large relay proteins in which other relay proteins are attached

23

How can scaffolding proteins increase signal transduction efficiency?

Grouping different proteins in same pathway

24

What is the actual signal that is being transduced in the various pathways?

Interactions that involve shape changes

25

GTPase

Hydrolyzes GTP binding to G protein