Chapter 23 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 23 Deck (12):
1

A cline is an example of what?

Geographic variation

2

What 5 processes lead to micro evolution?

1. Mutations
2. Sexual reproduction
3. Natural selection
4. Gene flow
5. Genetic drift

3

What are the types of genetic drift?

Founder effect and bottleneck effect

4

What's the only mechanism that leads to adaptive evolution?

Natural selection

5

What are the 5 conditions in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

1. No mutations
2. Random mating
3. No natural selection
4. Large population size (no genetic drift)
5. No gene flow

6

What is relative fitness?

Contribution individual gives to gene pool of next generation (relative to others)

7

Intrasexual selection vs intersexual selection

Intrasexual: members of one sex compete against each other
Intersexual: individual of one sex picky about choosing mate

8

What are the 3 patterns of natural selection?

Directional, disruptive, stabilizing

9

How is genetic variation preserved?

-Diploidy (hidden as recessive)
-Balancing selection (2 forms maintained)

10

What are the 2 types of balancing selection?

1. Heterozygote advantage
2. Frequency-dependent solution (if phenotype is too common it will no longer be beneficial)

11

Why can't natural selection create perfect organisms?

-Only acts on existing traits
-evolution limited by historical constraints
-adaptions are often compromises
-chance, natural selection and environment interact

12

What is average heterozygosity?

Percentage of heterozygous loci (measure of gene variability)