Flashcards in Chapter 23 Deck (12):
A cline is an example of what?
What 5 processes lead to micro evolution?
2. Sexual reproduction
3. Natural selection
4. Gene flow
5. Genetic drift
What are the types of genetic drift?
Founder effect and bottleneck effect
What's the only mechanism that leads to adaptive evolution?
What are the 5 conditions in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
1. No mutations
2. Random mating
3. No natural selection
4. Large population size (no genetic drift)
5. No gene flow
What is relative fitness?
Contribution individual gives to gene pool of next generation (relative to others)
Intrasexual selection vs intersexual selection
Intrasexual: members of one sex compete against each other
Intersexual: individual of one sex picky about choosing mate
What are the 3 patterns of natural selection?
Directional, disruptive, stabilizing
How is genetic variation preserved?
-Diploidy (hidden as recessive)
-Balancing selection (2 forms maintained)
What are the 2 types of balancing selection?
1. Heterozygote advantage
2. Frequency-dependent solution (if phenotype is too common it will no longer be beneficial)
Why can't natural selection create perfect organisms?
-Only acts on existing traits
-evolution limited by historical constraints
-adaptions are often compromises
-chance, natural selection and environment interact