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Flashcards in Bio tech Deck (27):
1

restriction enzyme

can be used to cut DNA fragments at specific sequences called recognition sequences

They recognize and bind to specific recognition sequences

found naturally in bacteria

2

where are the restricition enzymes found and used naturally

when the enzyme finds a special sequence it can remove it from the DNA to defend the bacteria from virus

3

how do the enzymes make genetic engineering possible

once they bind to their recognition sequence, they cut the phosphate backbones of DNA strands. EcoR1 cuts unevenly, leaving sticky ends

4

how is ligase

they make phospodiester bonds to join sticky ends

5

what is gel electrophesis

Seperates DNA fragments

uses electric current to separate different ssized molecules in porous sponge like matrix

small molecules moves faster than big ones

6

what gel

what solution

with pipette

negative/positive why

aragose gel

highly purified seaweed

salt, conducts electricity

DNA samples are loaded into slots made agragose gel

negative because phophates carry negative oxygen DNA moves from negative to positive

7

How are bands represented

fluorescent dye

ethidium bromide to stain DNA to trace it prior to procedure

glows when illumniated in UV light

photo of gel can be taken later for analysis

8

Gel is an obstacle course

This means short DNA fragments can move fast while big ones slowly

9

what is RFLP

Restriction Fragment length polymorphism

10

how are the fragments created

fragments of DNA cut by restriction enzymes

11

what chromosome pairs are commonly used as markers in a DNA profile

1

2

4

5

10

17

12

what is the notation used D2S44

section 44

chromosome pair 2

13

what is an autorad

14

what material is used as gel electrophesis

highly porous seaweed.

15

what is analyst

he made of profile of his and own family with RFLP analysis

16

what is RFLP

Restriction fragment length Polymorphism

17

What chromosome pairs are commonly used in a DNA profile

1

2

4

5

10

17

18

What is an autorad

photo of the gel with dark bands representing RFLP markers.

Bands are found in lanes and contain fragments from different source. Bands containing longer fragments are at top, small ones in ass

19

why would two different individuals have varying location od bans

DNA is stained

Different individuals have many different lengths of DNA possible at location of RFLP marker,different people will have bands at different places because no 2 guys are identical

20

why don't ma and pa bands match

they are not blood relatives, they are married,

no 2 different guys have all same bands

21

what bands did Bob's kids inherit from D1S7?

Top and bottom

22

what does a DNA analyst do?

DNA analysts prepare and analyze DNA from criminal evidence

Theyinterpret the results of their DNA analysis and often required to testify as expert witnesses on findings.

They check each other's work and ensure accuracy

23

What is PCR

Polymerase Chain reaction

produces millions of copies of a specific DNA sequence in 2 hours

no need for bacteria

24

Describe the first phase in PCR

denature at 95 Celsius

break H bonds

25

the next phase in PCR

temp is raised to 50 Celsiu

primers anneal

26

what is 3rd phase in PCR

extend DNA chain and make more and more copies of the gene

the template shrinks and you get a lot of copies

27

why is PCR so useful

to make millions of copies of a DNA sequence found at a crime scen

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