Bio107-ch11,12,13lab15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bio107-ch11,12,13lab15 Deck (53):
1

Irritability

ability to perceive stimuli

2

Excitability

ability to respond to stimuli

3

Primary functions of nervous system (3)

1. transmit info from one part of the body to another
2. coordinate activities within the body
3. produce hormones and neurotransmitters

4

Examples of neurotransmitters

ACh, norepinephrine, epinephrine

5

Transmit sensory receptors to the

CNS

brain and spinal cord

6

Transmit from CNS and send it to

muscles, glands, organs

7

Central nervous system containts

brain and spinal cord

like axial skeleton

8

Peripheral nervous system contains

cranial and spinal nerves

branches out to limbs

9

2 types of PNS

1. Somatic ns
2. Autonomic ns

10

Somatic nervous system (2)

skeleton, skeletal muscles, most of skin

VOLUNTARY

11

Autonomic nervous system (2)

smooth and cardiac muscle, glands, part of skin

INVOLUNTARY

12

2 divisions of autonimic ns

1. Sympathetic division: fight or flight
2. Parasympathetic division: body returns to homeostasis

13

All senses get heightened using the sympathetic division except

the GI tract shuts down

14

Neurons (4)

1. 20-25% of total nerve cells
2. respond to stimuli
3. conduct action potentials
4. release chemical regulators

15

Sensory neurons

afferent

16

Motor neurons

efferent

17

Glial cells (3)

1. 75-80% of nerve cells
2. structural support for neurons
3. do NOT produce action potentials

18

Types of glial cells:
Schwann cells

produce myelin sheath in PNS

myelin insulates the axon

19

Oligodendrocytes

produce myelin sheath in CNS

20

Astrocytes

anchor neurons to their nutrient supplies

MOST COMMON TYPE

21

Microglia

monitors health of neurons

gobbles up waste in neuron

22

Ependymal cells

CNS ONLY

on ventricles of the brain

produce cerebrospinal fluid

23

Neuron structure:
Cell body/soma

cont. organelles

24

Dendrites

receive info

25

Axon

conducts action potential

26

Axon hillock

responsible for the initiation of the action potential

27

Neurilemma (myelin sheath)

insulates the axon

PNS

28

Axon terminal

secretes neurtransmitters

29

Multipolar neurons (2)

1. Most common
2. Found: CNS to skeletal muscle

30

Bipolar neurons (2)

1. Least common
2. Found: retina of eye

31

Unipolar neurons

Found: visual and auditory senses

32

Depolarization

cell becoming more POS

33

Repolarization

cell becoming more NEG

34

Hyperpolarization

cell becoming SUPER NEG

35

Effector

muscle, organ, or gland

36

2 types of potentials

1. Graded potential
2. Action potential

37

Graded potential (3)

1. steps 1-2 on drawing
2. short-lived
3. decrease in intensity with distance

38

Action potential (3)

1. steps 2-6 on drawing
2. does NOT decrease in strength over distance
3. "All or none" law (with threshold)

39

Node of Ranvier

the gaps along the myelin sheath

40

Non-myelinated takes _____ to conduct velocity

longer (because of the gaps)

41

Synapses

a GAP that mediates TRANSFER from one neuron to
1. another neuron
2. an effector cell

42

2 classifications of synapses

1. Presynaptic neuron
2. Postynaptic neuron

43

Presynaptic neuron

the neuron BEFORE the synapse

sends impulse

44

Postsynaptic neuron

the neuron AFTER the synapse

received impulse, sends new message

45

Types of synapses (5)

1. Axodendritic: axon-dendrite
2. Axosomatic: axon-soma
3. Axoaxonic: axon-axon
4. Dendrodendritic: dendrite-dendrite
5. Dendrosomatic: dendrites-soma

46

Removal of neurotransmitters occur when they (3)

1. Are degraded by enzymes
2. reabsorbed by astrocytes or presynaptic terminals
3. diffuse from the synaptic cleft *

47

2 types of POSTsynaptic potentials

1. EPSP
2. IPSP

(before the threshold)

48

EPSP - excitatory postsynaptic potentials

determines if action potential will reach threshold

CAN generate action potential

49

IPSP - inhibitory postsynaptic potentials

NEVER get an action potential from IPSP

basically hyperpolarization

50

Excitatory neurotransmitters (4)

1. ACh- excites muscles, nerves
2. Norepinephrine- fight/flight hormones
3. Epinephrine- fight/flight ^
4. Dopamine- pain relief

51

Excitatory AND Inhibitory neurotransmitters (2)

1. Histamine- triggers inflammation
2. P-substances- pain relief

52

Spatial summation (2)

1. postsynaptic potential
2. almost will NEVER induce an action potential in a neron

53

Temporal summation (2)

1. postsynaptic potential
2. RAPID FIRE