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Flashcards in Bio107-ch14 Deck (66):
1

five components of REFLEX ARCS

1. Receptor
2. Sensory neuron
3. Integration center
4. Motor neuron
5. Effector

2

Receptor

site of stimulus

3

Sensory neuron

transmits AFFERENT impulses to the CNS

located in PNS

4

Integration center

only in the CNS

5

Motor neuron

conducts EFFERENT impulses from the integration system to an effector

goes from CNS to PNS

6

Effector

muscle, gland, organ
responds to efferent impulses

only in PNS

7

Afferent always has the ______

ganglion

8

Afferent travels

1. ENTER: dorsal root
2. dorsal root ganglion
3. posterior horn
4. LEAVES: anterior horn

9

Efferent enters in the

ventral root

10

# of pairs of spinal nerves

31

11

Plexus

where multiple spinal nerves integrate together

neck/shoulder, butt regions

12

Sacral plexus

siatic nerve, low back

13

Autonomin Pre and Postganglionic neuro transmitters and effectors

:)

14

Autonomic Pre and Postganglionic neuro transmitters and effectors

:)

15

Somatic nervous system: (2)

1. Pre and Postganglionic: ACh
2. Effector: skeletal muscle

16

Sympathetic nervous system: (2)

1. Pre: ACh, Post: NE
2. Effector: smooth muscle, glands, cardiac muscle

17

Parasympathetic nervous system: (2)

1. Pre and Pst: ACh
2. Effector: smooth muscle, glands, cardiac muscle

18

Eye: pupil

Sympathetic stimulation: dilated
Parasym: constricted

19

Sweat glands

Sym: sweating
Parasym: none

20

Heart: muscle

Sym: increased rate
Parasym: slowed rate

21

Lungs: bronchi

Sym: dilated
Parasym: constricted

22

Gut: lumen

Sym: decreased peristalsis and tone
Parasym: increased peristalsis and tone

23

Blood vessels: skin

Sym: constricted
Parasym: dilated

24

Piloerector muscles

Sym: excited
Parasym: none

25

Skeletal muscle

Sym: increased glycogenolysis and strength
Parasym: none

26

Regions of human brain (4)

1. Cerebrum
2. Diencephalon
3. Brainstem
4. Cerebellum

27

Cerebrum

top outer wormy part

28

Diencephalon (3 parts)

1. thalamus
2. hypothalamus
3. corpeous collosum

29

Brainstem (3 parts)

1. midbraind
2. pons
3. medula oblongotta

30

Directions describing the brain

dorsal and ventral

31

Longitudinal fissure

separates the brain down the middle (top view)

32

Fissure

deep sulcus (indentation)

33

Sulcus

indentation

34

Gyrus

worm like matter

35

Cortex (gray matter)

outside for brain

36

White matter

inside for brain

37

Gray matter

1. location of motor neurons (efferent)
2. unmyelinated
3. forms the CORTEX that covers the surface
4. forms cerebral nuclei

38

Gray matter (4)

1. location of motor neurons (efferent)
2. unmyelinated
3. forms the CORTEX that covers the surface
4. forms cerebral nuclei

39

White matter (2)

1. myelinated
2. deep

40

Myelinated (2)

1. quicker
2. has sheath (intact)

41

Unmyelinated (3)

1. slow
2. no myelin sheath/protection
3. no nodes of ranavier

42

Cranial meninges (3)

1. separate soft tissue from bones of cranium
2. contain cerebrospinal fluid
3. 3 main layers

43

Cranial meninge layers (3)

1. dura matter- thickest, outer
2. arachnoid
3. pia mater- thin, around brain and spinal cord

44

Subarachnoid space contains

cerebrospinal fluid

45

Periosteum does what

protects bone (skull)

46

Ventricles of the brain (3)

1. 2 lateral- cerebrum
2. third ventricle- diencephalon
3. fourth ventricle- goes down brainstem

47

Ventricle

hollow cavities within the brain

continuous with one another

48

All ventricles contain

cerebrospinal fluid

49

Cerebrospinal fluid (3)

1. produced by epindymal cells
2. formed in choroid plexus of ventricles
3. clear, colorless liquid

50

Functions of CSF (3)

1. buoyancy- brain floats in it
2. protection- liquid cushion
3. environmental stability- transports nutrients, removes waste

51

With out CSF....

the brain sits directly onto 12 cranial nerves (neck), BAD headache, puking, pain, unable to move

52

Blood-brain barrier

strictly regulates what substances are allowed to enter the interstitial fluids of the brain

53

Functional areas of cerebrum (3)

1. Motor areas- skeletal muscle (voluntary)
2. Sensory area- awareness to sensation
3. Association areas- working memory

54

Frontal lobe functions

working memory, Broca's area, complex problem solving

55

Broca's area

putting words together in speech

56

Wernicke's area

comprehending speech

57

Occipital area

vision

58

Diencephalon

emotions, thirst, sex drive

59

Cerebral white matter contains

myelinated fibers and their tracts

60

Concussion

1. alteration of brain function
2. short term
3. ex- blow to the head
4. the more it occurs, the worse they get

61

Subdural/arachnoid hemorrhage

1. bleeding into a cavity
2. increases pressure and compresses the brain

62

Cerebral edema

1. swelling of the brain
2. can be fatal

63

Genetic: CVA

1. cerebral vascular attack
2. stroke
3. starts in neck, affects one side of the body

64

TIA

1. transient ischemic attack
2. mini stroke
3. goes away, person affected is NORMAL in a few minutes
4. small blood clot that fixes itself
5. these people put on blood thinners to prevent a full on stroke

65

Alzheimers

1. plaque builds up in brain
2. memory loss
3. medications can help slow it down, but not cure

66

PD

1. parkinson's dx
2. degeneration of dopamine
3. dopamine controls muscles
4. tremors occur, lost function of body parts
5. eventually, lost control of lung muscles and you suffocate and die