Bio107-ch3lab4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bio107-ch3lab4 Deck (65):
1

Cell/plasma membrane

surrounds cell, regulates what goes in and out of it

2

Phospholipid bilayer

protects the cell, part of the cell membrane

3

Phospholipid bilayer (2 parts)

1. Head 2. Tails

4

Heads are

hydrophilic and on the outside

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Tails are

hydrophobic and on the inside

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Hydrophilic

likes water

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Hyrdophobic

does NOT like water

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Cholesterol adds ___ to the cell membrane

structure

9

Glycoprotein

helps the body recognize itself and organs (blood type, organ transplant- meds to trick the glycoprotein)

10

Functions of cell membrane (2 main)

1. Transport 2. Enzymatic

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Transport

read in book

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Enzymatic

read in book

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PASSIVE Membrane Transport (2)

going with the gradient

"go with the flow"

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Passive membrane transport (3 main types)

1. Simple diffusion 2. Facilitate diffusion 3. Osmosis

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Simple diffusion- PASSIVE (3)

1. no ATP req. 2. movement of O2 through cell membrane 3. perfume disperses after time & isn't as strong

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Facilitated diffusion- PASSIVE (3)

1. no ATP req. 2. movement of GLUCOSE into cells 3. BIGger particles cannot go through normal channels in the cell membrane so they make NEW channels

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Osmosis- PASSIVE

1. no ATP req. 2. movement of WATER in and out of cells

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Osmosis moves from- PASSIVE

high concentration to low concentration

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Osmosis terms- PASSIVE (3)

1. Isotonic 2. Hypotonic 3. Hypertonic

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Isotonic

or equilibrium- same solute on both sides

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Hypotonic

GREATER solute concentration

cell will SHRINK, water ENTERS cell

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Hypertonic

LESS solute concentration

cell will SWELL/BURST, water LEAVES cell

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ACTIVE Membrane Transport (3)

1. REQUIRES ATP 2. Low concentration to high concentration 3. Going AGAINST the gradient/ swimming upstream

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ACTIVE membrane transport (3 main)

1. Exocytosis 2. Endocytosis 3. Phagocytosis

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Exocytosis

moves/allows a substance to LEAVE the cell

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Endocytosis

enables LARGE particles to ENTER the cell

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Phagocytosis

they engulf BIGger things and moves them INTO the cell

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CELL STRUCTURE

you got this girllllll ;)

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Cytoplasm

the contents OUTSIDE the nucleus

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Cytoplasm includes (2)

1. Organelles- little organs 2. Cytosol- fluid

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Mitochondria

power house of cell, ENERGY

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Glycolysis formula

Glucose + O2 --> CO2 + H2O + energy

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ATP =

ENERGY

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Cristae- in MITOCHONDRIA

where most ATP is produced

ETC

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ATP (3 parts)

1. Glycosis 2. Krebs cycle 3. Electron Transport Chain

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Glycosis- ATP

yields little ATP

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Krebs cycle- ATP

yields a little more ATP than glycosis

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Electron transport chain (ETC)- ATP

where we get a majority of our ATP

Cristae

39

ATP requires

OXYGEN in order for work

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ATP full name

Adenosine triphosphate

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ATP formula

ADP + P= ATP

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Endoplasmic reticulum (2 types)

1. Rough/Granular ER- has RIBOSOMES on it 2. Smooth/Agranular ER

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Ribosomes

site of protein synthesis

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Rough ER

makes the proteins that are imbedded into the plasma/cell membrane

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Smooth ER

1. In liver- lipid and cholesterol metabolism and detoxifies drugs 2. In testes- synthesis of steroid-based hormones

46

Golgi apparatus (3)

1. "UPS center" 2. Modification, concentration, and packaging of proteins 3. SENDS proteins in secretory vesicles

47

Lysosomes (2)

1. "Lysol" 2. Breaks down bacteria/viruses/toxins 2. Found in WBC, immune cells, and melanocytes

48

Peroxisomes

Neutralizes dangerous free radicals (to prevent cell mutation)

49

Cytoskeleton

"Skeleton" of cell, have filaments for cell structure & rigidity

50

Centrioles

involved in cell division

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Cilia

"finger like hairs"
helps substances move through the cells

52

Nucleus

powerhouse of cell, contains genetic material

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Chromatin

loose genetic material in nucleus (before division)

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Chromosomes

when dividing, chromatin becomes dark rods or chromosomes

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Nucleoli

small round bodies inside nucleus

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Nuclear envelope

protects nucleus, has NUCLEAR PORES

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Nuclear pores

regulate what passes through and goes out of the nuclear envelope

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CELL DIVISION

lab 4 and part of lecture chapter 3

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Interphase

long period where cells grow before dividing

clumps of dark in middle with nucleus

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Prophase

chromatin condenses forming chromosomes

clumps of dark in the middle

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Metaphase

chromosomes cluster in the middle in a line

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Anaphase

the chromosomes in the middle start to pull apart

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Telophase

the soon to be new 2 sister cells start to pull away (cleavage)

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Cytokinesis

2 sister cells are produced (separate from each other)

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Mitosis

division of copied DNA of the mother cell to 2 daughter cells