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Flashcards in Bio107-ch5lab7 Deck (53):
1

Integument (skin) is the

largest organ in the body (by weight)

2

Functions of the integument system (5)

1. Protection- injury, infection
2. Thermoregulation- shivering
3. Receives environmental stimuli- nerves embedded in skin
4. Excretion- waste removal
5. Water balance

3

3 primary LAYERS of integument

1. Epidermis
2. Dermis
3. Hypodermis

4

Epidermis- basic charateristics

stratified squamous epithelium

outermost layer, 5 layers within

5

Dermis- basic characteristics

dense IRREGULAR connective tissue

middle layer, hair follicles, nerve endings

6

Hypodermis- basic characteristics

areolar connective tissue with adipose cells

fat

7

Epidermis is composed of

keratinized (waxy) stratified squamous epithelium

8

Epidermis cell types include (4)

1. Keratinocytes
2. Melanocytes
3. Merkel cells
4. Langerhans' cells

9

Keratinocytes

produce fibrous protein keratin (wax)

10

Melanocytes

produce dark brown pigment melanin

11

Langerhans' cells

epidermal macrophages help activate the immune system

12

Merkel cells

touch receptors associated with sensory nerve endings

13

4/5 Layers of the Epidermis

1. Stratum corneum
2. *Lucidum layer- 5th layer, THICK SKIN ONLY
2/3. Stratum granulosum
3/4. Stratum spinosum
4/5. Stratum basale

14

1. Stratum corneum

20-30 layers of dead skin, superficial

15

2. Lucidum layer

5th layer, thick skin only

16

2/3. Stratum granulosum

3-5 layers thick

organelles deteriorating

17

3/4. Stratum spinosum

1-2 layers thick

desmosomes, "spiky shape," where keratin is made

18

4/5. Stratum basale

deepest layer

stem cells, healthiest layer

19

Dermis is composed of

IRREGULAR dense connective tissue

2 layers- papillary & reticular

20

Dermis cell types (4)

1. Fibroblasts
2. Macrophages
3. Mast cells
4. WBCs

21

Hypodermis is composed of

areolar & adipose connective tissue

subcutaneous layer

22

Areolar connective tissue anchors to

what is below it (tissue, bone, cavity)

23

5 pigments that contribute to skin color

1. Melanin
2. Carotene
3. Hemoglobin
4. Cyan
5. Jaundice

24

Melanin

yellow- red- brown- black (genetic descent)

responsible for dark skin colors, freckles, moles

25

Carotene

orange pigment

found in carrots, most obvious in palms and soles of feet

26

Hemoglobin

reddish pigment, pink hues

found in RBCs, "color back in your face" after illness

27

Cyan

blue/purple color

caused by a lack of O2 to tissues

28

Jaundice

yellow color

buildup of bilirubin- liver disease, new borns

29

Exocrine glands

have ducts that secrete products OUTSIDE

30

Goblet cells secrete

mucous (exocrine glands)

31

Endocrine glands

DUCTLESS, secretes products directly INTO the blood stream

32

EXOcrine modes of secretion (3)

1. Merocrine/Eccrine
2. Apocrine
3. Holocrine

33

Merocrine/Eccrine

products are thin (not viscous)

diffuse through cell membrane (nervous sweat- palms, forehead)

34

Apocrine

products are slightly viscous

exocytosis expels product (armpit & groin sweat glands- puberty, odorous)

35

Holocrine

product very viscous

cell membrane ruptures, secretes cerumen (wax)

36

Sebaceous glands secrete

sebum (oil)

Ex. oil from hair on scalp

37

Characteristics of hair (3 main)

1. Hair is filamentous strands of dead keratinized cells
2. Has SHAFT projecting from the skin & ROOT embedded in the skin
3. Pigmented by MELANIN from MELANOCYTES at the base of hair

38

Functions of hair (3)

1. Maintain warmth
2. Light touch (air, insects, etc.)
3. Protects scalp from trauma, heat loss, sunlight

39

Hair is found everywhere on the skin except (5)

1. Palms
2. Soles
3. Lips
4. Nipples
5. Portions of external genitalia

40

Vellus

fine body hair found in children

"baby hairs"

41

Terminal

coarse, long hairs

eyebrows, scalp, armpits, pubic regions

42

First degree burn

1. damages: EPIDERMIS
2. color: pink/redish
3. NO permanent damage
4. heals: 1-7 days
5. cause: mild sunburn, touching hot surface quickly

43

Second degree burn

1. damages: EPIDERMIS & DERMIS
2. color: pink, red- water filled blisters
3. MINOR permanent damage
4. heals: 1-2 weeks min
5. cause: excessive sunburn, touching pot on stove, cigarette burn, fire

44

Third degree burn

1. damages: ALL 3 layers
2. color: pink/red/blisters, charred appearance (black/green)
3. heals: months, may need skin graft

Fries your nerves, risk of infection, high risk of death, should go to hospital

45

Rule of Nines

estimates fluid loss in burn patients using percentage of body surface burned

46

Benign- skin cancer

common, not deadly

47

Malignant- skin cancer

dangerous, cancer

MELANOMA

48

Metastasis- skin cancer

ability to spread

49

Acne

infection starting in oil glands and spreading to hail follice

50

Furuncle

"boil" infection of dermis & hypodermis

51

Vernix caseosa

milky coating that covers vellus hairs on a fetus after birth

52

Lanugo

layer of very fine vellus hair on fetus that will shed off soon after birth

53

ABCD rule for skin cancer screening

1. Asymmetry- mole thats round throughout
2. Border- smooth, clean edges
3. Color- pale (noncancerous), dark (malignant)
4. Diameter- should be no bigger than pencil eraser