Bio107-ch2 Flashcards Preview

E: BIO 107 > Bio107-ch2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bio107-ch2 Deck (47):
1

Proton

pos. charge, in center

2

Electron

neg. charge, orbit

3

Neutrons

neutral charge, in center

4

Atomic # is equal to the

# of electrons

5

How many electrons does a structure strive for?

8

6

Chemical bonds

hold atoms together to form molecules

7

Chemical bonds (3 types)

1. Covalent bonds 2. Ionic bonds 3. Hydrogen bonds

8

Covalent bond (chemical)

SHARES electrons, strongest chemical bond

9

Covalent bonds (3 types)

1. Single- strongest/stable 2. Double- medium strength 3. Triple- weakest bond

10

Ionic bonds (chemical)

TRANSFERS electrons, mid-strength bond

11

Ions are

charged atoms

12

Pos. and neg. atoms are called

Cations (p) and Anions (n)

13

Electrolytes and ____ are one in the same

salts

14

Hydrogen bonds (chemical)

holds water together, weakest bond (in this class)

15

A water molecule is held together by a

covalent bond

16

Bonding 2 water molecules is done using a

hydrogen bond

17

Organic compounds are (4 types)

1. Proteins 2. Carbohydrates 3. Lipids 4. Nucleic acid

18

Organic means

containing carbon

19

PROTEINS

chains of AMINO ACIDS linked together with peptide bonds

20

Proteins ( 2 types)

1. Structural- collagen 2. Enzymes- speeds up chemical reactions

21

Any word ending in -ase is an

enzyme

22

Anabolic

makes things SIMPLER more COMPLEX

23

Catabolic

makes things COMPLEX more SIMPLER

24

Amphibolic

goes BOTH ways, complex to simple- simple to complex

25

Enzymes are ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE meaning

they have specific needs for temperature, pH, pressure, and change of shape. if one of these things is off, then they stop producing

26

Mechanisms of enzyme action (4)

1. Amino acids connect with an enzyme 2. Energy is absorbed and a bond is formed 3. Water is released 4. The new PEPTIDE BOND breaks away from the enzyme

27

Functional proteins TRANSPORT

hemoglobin in BLOOD and myoglobin in MUSCLES

28

How many amino acids are there in the body?

20

29

CARBOHYDRATES

sugars and their relatives

30

Carbohydrates (3 types)

1. Monosaccharides 2. Disaccharides 3. Polysaccharides

31

Monosaccharides

six carbons or less, highly soluble- hohos, white bread

32

Monosac (3 types)

1. Triosecs 2. Pentoses 3. Hexosecs

33

Triosecs

3 carbons- adenose, ketoses

34

Pentoses

5 carbons- ribose, deoxyribose

35

Hexosecs

6 carbons- glucose (source of energy), fructose (sugars from fruit), galactose

36

Disaccharides

12 carbons, moderately soluble- whole grains

37

Disac (3 types)

1. Sucrose (table sugar) 2. Lactose (milk sugar) 3. Maltose (malt sugar)

38

Polysaccharides

18 + carbons, slightly soluble to insoluble

39

Polysac (2 types)

1. Amylose- starch 2. Cellulose- fiber

40

Which organ secretes sugar while you sleep to keep your blood sugar level stable?

liver

41

Glycogen

stores sugar for later use

42

LIPIDS

or triglycerides- fatty acid

43

If all bonds are single (straight line), then

saturated fats- harder to digest, bad

44

The more double bonds (kinks or curvy), the more

UNsaturated fats- easier to digest, not good but not bad

45

Nucleic acids

or nucleotides- building blocks, ATCF&U

46

DNA

deoxyribose nucleic acid

47

RNA

ribose nucleic acid