Biochemistry- Amino Acids and Proteins Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biochemistry- Amino Acids and Proteins Deck (64)
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1

Tryptophan is a precursor for what neurotransmitter?

serotonin

2

The reaction of tryptophan to serotonin requires what vitamin as a cofactor?

B6- pyrodoxine

3

Tryptophan can also be turned into what molecule?

Niacin

4

Phenylkeonturia is a genetic inability (lack of phenylalanine hydroxylase) to convert phenylalanine into what aminoacid?

Tyrosine

5

Tyrosine is the precursor for which 2 neurotransmitters and what is the intermediate substance produced?

Norepi, and Epinephrine
Dopamine intermediate

6

What is the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of L-DOPA (and therefore catecholamines in general) from tyrosine?

Tyrosine hydroxylase

7

What inhibits and promotes the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase?

Promotes: cold, stress
Inhibits: Norepi

8

What vitamin is needed as a cofactor for the production of Norepi from dopamine?

Vitamin C

9

What is the name of the enzyme that breakdown Norepi and epinephrine?

Monoamineoxidase (MAO)

10

What is the breakdown product of MAOs action of norepi and epic?

vanillmandelic acid (VMA)

11

What are the 3 branched chain amino acids?

BCAAs: valine, isoleucine, leucine

12

Post-translational modification of proline and lycine to form hydroxylycine and hydroxyproline in collagen formation requires what vitamin?

Vitamin C

13

Which are the only 3 amino acids that can be posttranvslationally modified by phosphorylation?

serine, threonine, tyrosine

14

Acetylcholine is formed from what amino acid?

Serine

15

GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) is formed from what amino acid?

Glutamate/ Glutamic acid

16

The reaction of glutamic acid to GABA requires what vitamin as a cofactor?

B6 (pyrodoxine)

17

Histamine is formed from what amino acid?

Histadine

18

Which amino acid is the main methyl donor in the body?

Methionine

19

What are the 6 amino acids that can be catabolized by skeletal muscle?

Valine
Leucine
Isoleucine
Aspartic acid
Asparagine
Glutamin Acid

20

What are the 3 amino acids that make up the tripeptide glutathione?

Cysteine, Glycine and glutamic acid

21

What are the 2 initial precursors for heme synthesis?

Glycine and succinyl CoA

22

What amino acid is the main transporter of nitrogen (ammonia) in the blood?

Glutamine

23

Alanine can be converted into what substance?

Pyruvate

24

What amino acid is a major component of actin and myosin? What form does it take?

Histadine in the form of 3-methyl histadine

25

What type of bond holds together the amino sequence of peptides?

covalent

26

what are the only 2 sulphur containing amino acids?

cysteine, methionine

27

What 2 bonds hold a secondary protein structure?

disulfide, weak covalent bonds

28

3D folding is seen is which level of protein structure?

tertiary

29

2 or more single polypeptide chains bonded by weak bonds is called what?

quaternary structure

30

Heme molecule is an example of what type of protein structure?

quaternary