Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (187)
Mot common cause of UTI
Most common cause of infant meningitis
What infection is caught from raw milk and is especially dangerous for pregnant women and newborns?
What is the route of transmission of Yersinia pestis?
What bacteria is associated with buboes?
What bacteria causes severe gastroenteritis and can be caught from shellfish? (3)
What bacteria causes pneumonia in immunocompromised patients?
What red colored organism causes UTI in debilitated patients?
Which of the following is not a lactose fermenter: Proteus, E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia
Which bacteria that produces urease is often associated with UTIs especially after catheterization?
What species causes typhoid fever?
What species causes typhus?
Which organism can exist chronically in the gallbladder?
What organism causes rose colored spots on the abdomen, high fever and possible perforation of the abdomen?
What organism, having many animal reservoirs, produces endotoxin and is a common cause of food poisoning in the US?
Salmonella choleosius causes what 3 things?
pneumonia, osteomyelitis, meningitis
What causes bacillary dysentery?
What gram pos cocci is catalase positive?
What gram pos cocci is catalase negative?
Compare salmonella and staph food poisoning in terms of incubation period
Staph: 4-8 hours incubation, due to exotoxin production
Strep: 10-28 hours because the cells have to die in order to release the exotoxin
What organism causes boils, carbuncles and impetigo?
Two possible organism involved in impetigo are:
staph aureus, streptococcus pyogenes (Group A beta-hemolytic)
What type of toxin is responsible for the scalded skin syndrome of staph aureus infection?
T/F: Staph aureus can be killed with penicillin
False: it secretes penicillinase which destroys penicillin
What organism is associated with toxic shock syndrome?
The catalase test is diagnostic for what organism?
What organism has hemolysis as a diagnostic feature?
What organism is responsible for scarlet fever?
What is an important sequelae to know of concerning strep ?
Glomerulonephritis can follow what infection?
In what type of Strep infection is the capsule pathogenic?
How does gonorrhea usually present in males?
urethritis, purulent discharge
How dies gonorrhea present in females and what are the complications?
usu asymptomatic, complications are PID or salpingitis
What STD grows on a Thayer-Martin agar in CO2?
Which STD is oxidase positive?
Patient comes in with fever, N/V stiff neck and petechiae. What is likely diagnosis?
Neisseria meningitidis infection
What disease can you get from home canned products?
Infection with clostridium botulinum is associated with what type of paralysis?
What causes gas gangrene?
People who handle livestock are susceptible to what kind of infection?
What is a complication of diphtheria?
Respiratory paralysis and death
What infection has a grey pseudomembrane in the throat?
Clostridium tetani causes what kind of paralysis?
Rice water stool is associated with what infection?
What organism is associated with hot tubs and can cause folliculitis?
What is a common cause of Otitis media in children, and can cause meningitis and pneumonia?
What causes chancroid?
Which STD has a painful ragged ulcer?
What can be diagnosed with clue cells seen on a smear?
What organism grows around Staph aureus on an agar plate?
What causes whooping cough?
Rabbit fever is caused by what organism?
How is tularemia spread?
infected tick bites
What disease is walled off in the body by granulomas?
What is the skin test for TB called?
Mantoux skin test
What is the TB immunization called?
How is Brucella transmitted?
How is TB transmitted?
What kind of immune response does the body have to TB?
cell mediated, no antibodies
What is TB infection that has spread into the blood called?
What are the 2 types of leprosy?
Lepromatous leprosy and Tuberculoid leprosy
Which type of leprosy is less infectious and has less bacteria present during infection?
Which type of leprosy is more infectious and has more bacteria present in the body during infection?
What organism is cultured in armadillos?
The chancre, a bulls eye lesion, is associated with what disease?
Treponema pallidum (syphillis)
When is syphillis infectious?
primary and secondary infections
What kind of organism causes lyme disease and syphillis?
The mucocutaneous lesion of syphilis is found in which phase?
The gummas of syphilis appear in what stage of syphilis?
What is Hutchinsons triad and what is it caused by?
Congential syphilis, causes impaired vision, notched teeth and impaired hearing
Yaws is caused by what?
What are some of the lab tests for syphilis?
VDRL, FTA-Abs, RPR
What does treponema vincentii cause?
In what stage is syphilis most infectious?
What organism causes Glue ear?
What organism has a blue-green pigment and is associated with skin and especially burn infections?
Condylomata late are associated with what disease?
secondary , mucocutaneous lesion of syphilis
What is the vector for lyme disease?
What disease has a spreading circular lesion called Erythema migrans?
Lyme disease closely parallels what other disease in it's primary, secondary and tertiary symptoms?
What organism causes infectious jaundice?
What causes rat bite fever?
What organism contracted from raw milk causes body diarrhea and can mimic appendicitis?
Campylobacter fetus jejuni
What organism is implicated in causing peptic ulcers?
What causes walking pneumonia?
What is so special about mycoplasma species?
no cell wall and therefore are resistant to penicillin
What sexually transmitted organism requires cholesterol and urea?
Ureaplasma causes what kind of infection?
What species or organisms are transmitted by arthropods?
What causes epidemic typhus?
What causes endemic typhus?
Rickettsiae type affects which type of cells?
What is the vector for Rickettsiae prowazeki?
What is the vector for Rickettsiae typhi?
What is the only rickettsial disease with no vector?
Q fever- Coxiella burnetti
What are some symptoms of typhus?
macular rash, high fever, acute bacteremia
What is the organism responsible for Rocky Mountain fever?
How if the Rock Mountain fever transmitted?
What STD is associated with chronic conjunctivitis and blindness?
What disease is associated with standing water, e.g. in air-conditioning systems?
What disease is associated with birds?
What does chlamydia cause?
Conjunctivits, urethritis, cervicitis, salpingitis, lymphgranuloma venerum
What is the most common cause of epididymitis in men?
Parrot fever is the common name for what infection?
What fungus-like bacteria can mimic TB?
What causes lumpy jaw?
What is the name for trench fever?
What is the common name for coccidiodes immitis?
How do yeast reproduce?
How do molds reproduce?
by forming tubular structures
What fungi is associated with bat and bird feces?
What large capsulated yeast is commonly found in pigeon droppings?
What causes status asthmaticus?
What is the medical name for ring worm?
How is tinea diagnosed?
KOH wet mount
What is jock itch?
What opportunistic yeast commonly affects immunocompromised patients?
What causes amoebic dysentery?
What causes beaver fever?
Which of the following is NOT a cause of bloody diarrhea: Shigella dysenteriae, Campylobacter jejuni, Giardia lambda, Entamoeba histolytica
Which parasite interferes with fat absorption?
T/F: Trichomonas has no cysts
Pneumocystitis carnii is a problem for what type of patient?
Who is at risk for toxoplasmosis gone infection?
pregnant women (fetus)
What parasite is associated with cats?
What is the common name for Ascaris lumbricoides?
What is the common name for Necato americanus?
What parasite causes spoon nails, anemia and stunted growth?
What parasite can be contracted from pork or bear meat?
What is the vector for malaria?
What does plasmodium species of parasites cause?
What parasite is associated with dog and cat feces?
Toxocara canis or catis
How is filariasis transmitted?
What causes elephantiasis?
Schistosomata is associated with what reservoir?
Taenia is associated with which animals?
What kind of parasite is taenia?
Clonorchis is what kind of parasite?
Diphyllobothrium datum is what kind of parasite?
What kind of parasite is a schistosome?
a blood fluke
What are the 2 central lymphoid tissues?
thymus gland and bone marrow
What are the 3 peripheral lymphoid tissues?
lymph nodes, peyers patches, spleen
The role of B lymphocytes is categorized as what kind of immunity?
What is produced with humoral immunity?
The role of T lymphocytes is categorized as what kind of immunity?
What type of chemical activates components of the immune system i.e.. activates macrophages, PMNs, etc?
What is the function of basophils?
release histamine and other chemicals that act on blood vessels
What is the function of neutrophils?
recognize foreign antigens and destroy the through phagocytosis
What is the function of eosinophils?
destroy parasitic organisms
What is the function of monocytes/ macrophages?
engulf foreign antigens and cell debris and process antigen and present it
What is the function of B lymphocytes?
independently able to indentify foreign antigens and differentiate into antibody producing plasma and memory cells
What chemical produced by the body stimulates B lymphocytes?
What is the role of T lymphocytes?
T helper cells induce B lymphocytes. T suppressor cells recognize and kill virus-infected cells
What is the function of natural killer cells?
cell that bond to and lyse other cells especially virally-infected cells
What is the principal immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions (e.g. breast milk, respiratory and intestinal mucus, saliva, tears)?
What immunoglobulin can move across the placenta thus becoming an important immunoglobulin for newborns?
What is the main immunoglobulin in serum?
What immunoglobulin activates complement and is important in opsonization?
What immunoglobulin attaches to mast cells in the respiratory and intestinal tracts and plays a role in allergic responses?
What immunoglobulin is the first to form in response to an infection?
What immunoglobulin controls the A, B, O blood group antibody response?
Antigens present on all nucleated cells in the body that identify a cell as self are called what?
What is a hapten?
substance that normally does not act as an antigen
Complement is activated in what kind of immune response?
B-cell mediated immune response
What kind of proteins are involved in vasodilation, chemotaxis, opsonization of antigens, lysis of cells and blood clotting?
What is opsonization?
coat placed on cells so that they can be recognized
What role does interferon play?
interferon is released when invading organisms are viral. They inhibit the production of virally infected cells, prevent viral spread, enhance activity of macrophages, NK cells, cytotoxic T cells and inhibit tumor growth
Which interleukin permits cells of the immune system to talk to one another and intimate responses?
Which interleukin promotes cellular immunity ie. promote growth and activity of macrophages and B cells?
Which interleukins promote humoral immunity?
IL 4, 5, 10
Antibodies are produced in what type of immunity?
Hayfever is what type of hypersensitivity reaction?
IgE is formed in what type of hypersensitivity reaction?
The reaction of antigens and antibodies at cell surfaces is what type of hypersensitivity reaction?
The reaction to blood transfusions would be what type of hypersensitivity reaction?
The reaction os antigen and antibody in extracellular fluid spaces is what type of hypersensitivity reaction?
A cell mediated or delayed reaction meditated by the interaction of antigen and T lymphocytes and subsequent release of lymphokines is an example of what type of immunity?
Tuberculosis is an example of what type of hypersensitivity reaction?
Loss of normal tolerance by the immune system of "self" antigens on the surface of the body's cells and destruction of normal tissue with autoantibodies is defined as what?
What is the name of genital warts?
What is the name of the virus that causes measles?
Downey cells or atypical lymphocytes are seen in what infection?
Epstein Barr Virus
Why does Hep B have a potential carrier state?
Viral DNA is integrated in the chromosome of the host cell
Pandemics of flu are associated with what?
antigenic shift, major changes in viral RNA
Which polio vaccines is alive attenuated and given orally?
Which polio vaccine is inactivated, multivalent and injectable?