Physiology- Cardio Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology- Cardio Deck (102)
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1

What are the 3 main plasma proteins?

Albumin
Globulins
Fibrinogen

2

What is the major blood electrolyte?

sodium

3

Where does erythropoiesis occur?

bone marrow

4

Cessation of bleeding is known as what?

hemostasis

5

What is the role of platelets in hemostasis?

they stick to the injured site causing a platelet plug

6

What do you call a clot that includes RBCs?

a thrombus

7

What makes up a clot?

platelet plug plus fibrin

8

Vitamin K is important for which clotting factors?

II, VII, IX, X

9

What initiates the intrinsic pathway of the blood coagulation cascade?

blood coming into contact with exposed collagen of the damaged tissues.

10

What mineral is needed for proper clotting?

calcium

11

What is the insoluble substance that precipitates out at an injury site?

fibrin

12

Hemophilia is a genetic absence of what clotting factors?

Hemophilia A: Factor VIII
Hemophilia B: Factor IX

13

What substance dissolves clots?

Plasmin

14

What substance cleaves fibrinogen into fibrin?

Thrombin

15

Myocardial cells have more of this organelle due to its high oxidative capacity:

mitochondria

16

What cellular feature allows the heart to contract as a syncytium?

gap junctions between the muscle cells

17

How do T tubules differ between cardia and skeletal muscle?

Cardiac: T tubules contain extracellular fluid high in calcium
Skeletal: T- tubules contain extracellular fluid that is low in calcium

18

What structure brings depolarization inside the cardiac muscle and helps regulate cytoplasmic calcium?

t tubules

19

What prevents tetanic contraction in cardiac muscle?

the long cardiac action potential

20

What aspect of the action potential prevents a second action potential from taking place?

long refractory period of plateau period

21

What is the originator of the cardiac action potential?

the SA node

22

What property allows the SA node to function as a primary pacemaker?

small cell size allows it to spontaneously depolarize

23

What acts as a delay station for the action potential?

The AV node

24

Why does the AV node delay the action potential?

to allow atrial muscle to depolarize before ventricular muscle, to allow for filling

25

What can act as a secondary pacemaker in pathological conditions?

the AV node

26

What allows for rapid conduction of the action potential?

Bundle of His
Bundle Branch fibers
Purkinjie fibers
Specialized tracts

27

What is the sequence of electrical impulse in the heart?

SA node--> specialized tracts--> AV node and atrial muscle--> Bundle of HIS--> bundle branches--> Purkinjie fibers--> ventricular muscle

28

What serves to depress the heart rate at rest by slowing down the SA node?

parasympathetic nervous system

29

How does the sympathetic nervous system affect conduction through the electrical system?

it speeds up conduction of the action potential and therefore increases heart rate

30

What nerve has the greatest influence on the heart?

the vagus nerve