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Flashcards in Anatomy- Splanchnology Deck (152)
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1

How many permanent teeth are there?

32

2

How many deciduous teeth are there?

20

3

What nerve supplies the teeth?

The superior and inferior alveolar nerve

4

What muscles make up the pillars of the fauces?

Palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal m.

5

What are the muscles of swallowing?

the constrictor group

6

What nerves innervate swallowing?

CNIX (glossopharyngeal) and CN X (Vagus)

7

What do the intrinsic muscles of the tongue do?

alter the shape of the tongue

8

What muscle sticks the tongue out?

genioglossus

9

What muscle pulls the tongue back in?

styloglossus

10

What muscle elevates the tongue?

palatoglossus

11

What muscle depresses the tongue?

hypoglossus

12

Which of the muscles that moves the tongue is innervated by CN X? (vagus)

Palatoglossus

13

What nerve innervates most of the motor actions of the tongue?

CN XII Hypoglossal nerve

14

What innervates touch of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

Lingual nerve, a branch of the mandibular division (V3) of the trigeminal nerve CN V

15

What innervates taste of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

CN VII Facial nerve, Chordatympani branch

16

What innervates touch and taste of the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?

CN IX (Glossopharyngeal)

17

What innervates touch and taste for the epiglottis?

CN X (Vagus)

18

What glandular duct opens at the level of the 2nd maxillary molars?

parotid gland

19

What bone to the top teeth attach to?

Maxilla

20

What do the tensor palati and elevator palati do?

raise and tauten the soft palate

21

Which muscle elevates the larynx?

Stylopharyngeus

22

What does palatopharyngeus muscle do?

depresses the soft palate, puts tongue to mouth

23

What does the salpingopharyngeus muscle do?

opens the auditory tube

24

What nerve innervates the upper 1/3 of the straite muscle of the esophagus?

CN X Vagus

25

Where does peristalsis occur in the esophagus?

Inferior 2/3

26

What passes through the diaphragm?

the esophagus, the aorta and the inferior vena cava

27

What organs are retroperitoneal?

duodenum, ascending and descending colon, kidney, pancreas (partially)

28

Describe the musculature of the stomach from the inside out

Internal- oblique
Middle- circular
Outer- longitudinal

29

What artery supplies the stomach

the celiac via the L and R gastric arteries

30

The greater curvature of the stomach is supplied by which arteries?

R and L gastroepiploic arteries

31

The lesser curvature of the stomach is supplied by which arteries?

R and L gastric arteries

32

What are 3 branches of the celiac trunk?

left gastric, common hepatic, splenic

33

What organs receive blood from the celiac trunk?

Liver, Stomach, Spleen

34

What are the 3 main veins that drain into the portal vein?

Splenic, Superior and Inferior mesenteric

35

What kind of nerves are splanchnic nerves?

sympathetics

36

What action of the spastic nerves have on the stomach?

decrease peristalsis and acid secretion

37

What provides the parasympathetics to the stomach?

Vagus nerve, CN X

38

What action to parasympathetics have on the stomach?

increase peristalsis and acid secretion

39

What veins drain the stomach?

gastric vein, which drains into the portal vein

40

How do pancreatic enzymes enter the duodenum?

through the duodenal papilla

41

Which part of the small intestine does the most absorption?

Jejunum

42

Which part of the SI has the larger diameter, larger villi and longer vasa recta?

Jejunum

43

Which part of the SI has more arterial arcades and more peyers patches?

The ileum

44

What artery supplies the SI?

Superior mesenteric

45

What vessel drains the SI?

superior mesenteric vein?

46

What is the lymphatic drainage that carries fat from the GI called?

lacteals

47

Where does the lacteal transport fat to?

to the thoracic duct

48

What are the thickened bands of longitudinal smooth muscle of the large intestine called?

Teniae coli

49

What are the pouches of colon called?

Haustra

50

Which parts of the colon are retroperitoneal?

ascending and descending portions

51

What vascular beds in the anus can cause internal hemorrhages?

rectal venous plexus

52

What nerve innervates the skeletal muscle of the external anal sphincter?

pudendal nerve

53

What parts of the large intestine does the superior mesenteric artery supply?

ileocecal area, ascending colon, 1/2 of transverse colon

54

What parts of the large intestine does the inferior mesenteric artery supply?

1/2 of transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

55

What are three areas of concern for varicosities?

Esophagus, anal canal, umbilicus

56

Where do parasympathetics that supply the large intestine come from?

S2,3,4 and pelvic splanchnics

57

What bones make up the nasal aperture?

Nasa, maxilla, Frontal

58

What makes up the nasal septum?

Vomer, septal cartilage, perpendicular plate of the ethnic bone

59

What sinus drains the nasal cavity?

Maxillary sinus

60

Which meatus contains openings of maxillary and ethnical sinuses?

middle meatus

61

What makes up the lateral walls of the nose?

The conchae

62

Which conch is a separate bone and contains erectile tissue?

inferior concha

63

What are the 4 sinuses?

Sphenoid, Frontal, Maxillary, Ethmoid

64

What arteries supply the nose?

ant and posterior ethmoidal from the ophthalmic artery
sphenopalatine and greater palatine from the maxillary artery

65

What nerve makes mouth, eyes and nose wet?

Facial nerve, CN VII

66

What is the hay fever ganglion?

Pterygopalatine ganglion, mandibular division of the CN V trigeminal nerve

67

What nerve smells?

CN I Olfactory

68

What is the working cartilage of the larynx?

Arytenoid

69

What cartilage sits atop the arytenoid cartilage?

corniculate cartilage

70

The thyroid cartilage attaches to which cartilage?

Cricoid

71

Which muscles close the epiglottis?

Aryepiglottis
Thyroepiglottis, oblique arytenoid

72

What is the space between the vocal cords?

Rima glottidis or glottis

73

Which muscles are involved in vocalization?

Posterior cricoarytenoid, lateral cricoarytenoid, arytenoid

74

Which muscle lengthens and thus causes a lower pitch?

cricothyroid

75

Which muscle shortens and thus causes a higher pitch?

Thyroarytenoid and vocalis muscles

76

What nerve innervates motor to the cricothyroid?

superior laryngeal nerve

77

What nerve innervates the remaining laryngeal muscles?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

78

What is the overall source of the nerves to the larynx?

CN X, Vagus

79

Foreign objects are more likely to get caught in which lung?

Right lung, because it has a straighter path

80

What adheres the lung to the thoracic cage, diaphragm and pericardium?

Parietal pleura

81

What is the thin layer over the lung called?

visceral pleura

82

What is it called when you have a loss of vacuum between the visceral and parietal pleura?

pneumothorax

83

What carries blood from the aorta to the lung tissue?

Bronchial artery

84

What carries blood from the lung tissue to azygous veins?

Bronchial vein

85

What carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the alveoli?

Pulmonary artery

86

What carries oxygenated blood from the alveoli to the left atrium?

pulmonary vein

87

What is the location of passage of bronchi, blood vessels and nerves?

the hilum of the lung

88

Which lung has a horizontal fissure?

Right

89

The cardiac notch is found in which lung?

Left

90

What is the projection of the upper lobe of the left lung called?

Lingula

91

What nerve innervates the lungs?

Vagus CN X

92

What constricts the bronchioles?

parasympathetics

93

What dilates the bronchioles?

sympathetics

94

What is in the anterior mediastinum?

Thymus gland

95

What is in the middle mediastinum?

heart, pericardium

96

What is in the posterior mediastinum?

esophagus, descending aorta, axygos veins, thoracic duct, sympathetic trunk

97

What is in the superior mediastinum?

aortic arch, brachiocephalic veins, phrenic nerve, vagus nerve

98

What rib bisects the kidney?

Rib 12

99

The kidneys are located between which spinal levels?

T11-L3

100

What is the pathway for blood through the kidney?

Abdominal aorta--> renal arteries--> interlobar arteries--> arcuate arteries--> interlobular arteries--> afferent arterioles--> efferent arterioles--> stellate veins--> interlobular veins--> arcuate veins--> interlobar veins--> renal veins--> inferior vena cava

101

What is the flow of filtrate through the nephron?

glomerulus--> bowmans capsule--> proximal tubule--> loop of henle--> distal tubule--> collecting duct--> renal pelvis

102

What is the muscle of the bladder?

Detrusor muscle

103

What is the trigone?

The 2 ureteric orifices, the Opening for the urethra

104

What nerve controls the voluntary external urethral sphincter?

Pudendal nerve S 2, 3, 4

105

What effect does parasympathetics have on the bladder?

Contracts the detrusor, inhibits/relaxes the internal sphincter

106

Where effect does sympathetics have on the bladder?

relax the detrusor, activate the internal sphincter

107

Where does the bladder get its blood supply?

internal iliac artery

108

What are part of the tubule system of the testes?

seminiferous tubules --> rete testes --> efferent ductules--> epididymis

109

What structure passes through the inguinal canal?

ductus deferens

110

How does the prostate secrete its fluids into the urethra?

Through the prostatic duct

111

What is embedded in the external urethral sphincter?

bulbourethral glands

112

Ductus deference joins with the duct from seminars vesicles to form what?

the ejaculatory duct

113

What are the three parts of the urethra?

Prostatic, membranous, penile/spongy

114

What fills with blood during an erection?

corpus cavernosum

115

What artery is responsible for an erection?

Helicene artery

116

The crus penis is a part of what erectile tissue?

the corpus cavernosum

117

The glans penis is part of what erectile tissue?

the corpus spongiosum

118

What ligament holds ovaries to the lateral wall?

suspensory ligaments

119

What attaches ovaries of the uterus?

ovarian ligament

120

What is the name for the peritoneum that draws the uterus, uterine tubes and ovaries?

Broad ligament

121

What is the part of the broad ligament that covers the uterine tubes?

Mesosalpinx

122

What is the part of the broad ligament that covers the ovary?

Mesovarium

123

What are the names of the structures from the ovary to the uterus?

Fimbriae--> infundibulum--> ampulla--> isthmus

124

Where does fertilization take place most often?

in the ampulla

125

What ligament suspends the uterus and anchors the labia majora via the inguinal canal?

Round ligament

126

What female glands are homologous to the prostate gland?

Paraurethral glands

127

At what position on the clock are the paraurethral glands?

2 and 10 o'clock

128

At what position on the clock are Bartholins glands?

4 and 8 o'clock

129

What muscle raises the pelvic floor, supports pelvic viscera and controls defecations via elevation of the anal canal?

levator ani

130

What are the 4 lobes of the liver?

Right, Left, Quadrate, Caudate

131

What tunnels through the liver to collect filtered blood?

Inferior vena cava

132

What does the hepatic triad consist of?

hepatic artery, vein and bile canaliculi

133

Where does the liver tissue get its blood from?

Hepatic artery from the celiac trunk

134

What separates the right from the left lobe of the liver?

falciform ligament

135

What attaches the liver to the abdominal wall?

Round ligament

136

What is the name of the transverse fissure where ducts and vessels enter and leave the liver on the visceral surface between the caudate and quadrate lobes?

Porta Hepatica

137

What are two sources of blood for the liver?

Hepatic artery, Portal vein

138

What separates the quadrate lobe of the liver from the left lobe on the visceral surface?

the ligament teres

139

What sits in the hypophyseal fossa of the sella truck of the sphenoid bones?

the pituitary gland

140

What is located posterior to the thalamus and superior to the midbrain of the brainstem?

Pineal gland

141

What is the body's largest endocrine gland?

the Thyroid

142

Describe the location of the thyroid by bony landmarks?

Located between C5 and T1 levels, on the anterior of the body below the sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles

143

How many parathyroid glands do you usually have?

4

144

What are the two layers of the adrenal gland?

Cortex, Medulla

145

What are the three layers of the adrenal cortex?

Glomerulosa
Fasiculata
Reticularis

146

What cells produce catecholamines in the adrenal glands?

Chromaffin cells

147

In what chamber are the SA and AV nodes

Right atria

148

Where does blood from the cardiac veins flow?

Through the coronary sinus into the right atrium

149

What work together to prevent tricuspid and mitral valves from buckling open?

chordae tendinae and papillary muscles

150

When do coronary arteries fill?

during diastole blood backs up and fills up the semilunar valves of the aortic valve, entering the coronaries

151

What forms the first heart sound?

closing of the mitral and tricuspid valves

152

What forms the second heart sound?

closing of the aortic and pulmonary valves