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Flashcards in Biochemistry - Important Concepts Deck (204)
1

Amino acids in histones

Lysine and arginine
(His lies made me go "argh!")

2

Nucleosome core

H2A, H2B, H3, H4

3

H1

Binds to the nucleosome and to linker DNA, stabilizing the chromatin fiber

4

During what phase of the cell cycle does histone synthesis occur?

S phase

5

Heterochromatin

Condensed and inactive

6

Euchromatin

Sterically accessible

7

Amino acids necessary for purine synthesis

GAG
Glycine
Aspartate
Glutamine

8

Leflunomide

Inhibits dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (carbamoyl phosphate + aspartate + PRPP --> orotic acid

9

Mycphenolate

Inhibits IMP dehydrogenase
(My Ribald IMP)

10

Ribavarin

Inhibits IMP dehydrogenase
(My Ribald IMP)

11

Hydroxyurea

Inhibits ribonucleotide reductase (which turns UDP --> dUMP or converts ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides)

12

6-mercaptopurine

Inhibits de novo purine synthesis

13

Azathioprine

Inhibits de novo purine synthesis

14

Pyrimethamine

Inhibits dihyrofolate reductase and decreases dTMP

15

Mnemonic for pyrimidine base production

Gluttons crave carbs as oral porn
Glutamine Carbamoyl phosphate synthase II Carbamoyl phosphate Aspartate Orotic acid PRPP

16

HGPRT catalyzes what rxns?

Guanine to GMP
Hypoxanthine to IMP

17

Adenosine deaminase does what?

Adenosine to Inosine (irreversibly deaminates adenosine - substitutes an amino group for a hydroxyl group)

18

Xanthine oxidase does what?

Hypoxanthine to xanthine, xanthine to uric acid.

19

Adenosine deaminase deficiency

Leads to excess ATP and dATP, which imbalances nucleotide pool via feedback inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase - DNA synthesis is prevented - lymphocyte count decreases

AR SCID

20

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency

Catalyzes the reaction from Inosine to Hypoxanthine. Increased purine nucleosides, decreased uric acid, and impaired T cell function.

21

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome sx?

HGPRT:
Hyperuricemia
Gout
Pissed off (aggressive, self-mutilating)
Retardation
DysTonia

Also choreathoid movements

22

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome treatment?

Allopurinol and Febuxostat (inhibit xanthine oxidase)

23

Mycophenolate mofetil

Anti-metabolite, anti-proliferative drug that acts as an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and is used to treat Wegener's... somehow

24

DNA polymerase delta

Major eukaryotic replication polymerase

beta - repair
alpha and epsilon - also involved in replication
gamma - mitochondrial DNA

25

DNA polymerase beta

beta - repair
delta - major eukaryotic replication polymerase
alpha and epsilon - also involved in replication
gamma - mitochondrial DNA

26

DNA polymerase III

Prokaryotic only. Proofreads with 3' to 5' exonuclease.

III only eats what's behind it
I is aggressive - chomps as it goes forward, like Pacman

27

DNA polymerase I

Prokaryotic only. Proofreads with 5' to 3' exonuclease. THis is used to degrade RNA primer.

III only eats what's behind it
I is aggressive - chomps as it goes forward, like Pacman

28

Transition mutation

purine to purine or pyrimidine to pyrimidine

29

Transversion mutation

purine to pyrimidine or vice versa

30

Wobble rules

Third base pair contributes to wobble.
U-G is a valid pair
Inosine can pair with U, C, A

31

AA with strongly nonpolar side chains have codons with ___s in 2nd position.

Pyrimadines

Polar side chains --> purines

Remember - polar bears are pure.

32

Xeroderma pigmentosum type of DNA repair problem?

Nucleotide excision repair

Think derma --> skin --> UV exposure

33

HNPCC repair problem?

Mismatch repair

34

Ataxia telangiectasia repair problem?

Nonhomologous end joining

35

Nucleotide excision repair

Repair of pyrimidine dimers or bulky helix-distorted lesions usually from UV light exposure.

A short section is excised using endonucleases and then DNA polymerase and ligase fills and reseals the gap.

Xeroderma pigmentosum

36

Base excision repair

Altered base - repairs spontaneous / toxic deamination (C --> U, A --> hypoxanthine)

GEL PLease!
Glycosylase (base-specific) recognizes altered base and creates an apyrimidinic, apurinic site
Endonuclease removes nucleotide and cleaves 5' end
Lyase cleaves 3' end
Pol beta fills gap
Lyase seals it.

37

Mismatch repair

Defect in newly synthesized strand.

M2ESS PLease
MutS detects mismatch
MutL identifies parent strand
Exonuclease 1 is activated
SSBPs stabilize the construct
Pol delta synthesizes new DNA
Ligase seals the nick

HNPCC

38

NHEJ

Brings together 2 ends of DNA fragments to repair double strand breaks; no requirement for homology

Ataxia telangiectasia

39

DNA denaturation

Hyperchromic effect - increase in UV absorption and A260

Decrease viscosity

40

Where do capping, splicing, and polyadenylation of 3' end of RNA occur?

All in the nucleus

41

hnRNA versus mRNA?

hnRNA - heterogeneous nuclear RNA - not spliced or capped or polyadenylated

42

Cytoplasmic P-bodies?

These are responsible for mRNA quality control - they contain exonucleases, decapping enzymes, and microRNAs.

43

Polyadenylation signal

AAUAAA

44

anti-smith antibodies

Antibodies to spliceosomal snRNPs - highly specific for SLE

45

anti-U1 RNP antibodies

highly associated with mixed connective tissue disease

46

Exons

Contain the actual genetic material coding for proton

47

Introns

Intervening noncoding segments of DNA

48

Which end is the CCA at in tRNA?
What does it do?

3' end
Accepts the amino acid

49

T-arm

Think Tribe
Thiamine, pseudouracil, cytosine
t-RNA ribosome binding

50

D-arm

Think D-syn
Contains dihydrouracil residues
Necessary for tRNA recognition by the correct amino-acyl tRNA synthetase

51

Which stages require ATP and which require GTP?

ATP - tRNA activation and charging
GTP - tRNA gripping and going places

52

Sites on the 60S subunit

A - incoming aminoacyl tRNA
P - accomodates growing peptide
E - holds empty tRNA as it exits

53

Release factor

Recognizes the stop codon, causes completed polypeptide to be released from the ribosome

54

Zymogen

Inactive enzyme precursor

55

CDKs

Constitutive and inactive

56

Cyclins

Regulatory proteins that control cell cycle events - activate CDKs

57

Breast cancer, brain tumors, acute leukemia, soft tissue sarcomas, bone sarcomas, and adrenal cortical carcinoma

Li-Fraumeni syndrome
p53 mutation, AD. rare

58

Nissl bodies

RER in neurons that synthesize peptide neurotransmitters for secretion

59

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Site of steroid synthesis and detoxification of drugs and poisons

Liver hepatocytes and steroid-hormone producing cells in the adrenal cortex and gonads are rich in SER.

60

Golgi modifications

N-oligosaccharide on asparagine
O-oligosaccharide on serine and threonine
Mannose-6-phosphate addition to proteins for lysosomal trafficking.

61

Endosomes

Sorting centers for material from outside the cell or from the Golgi, sending it to lysosomes for destruction or back to the membrane / Golgi for further use.

62

Coarse facial features, clouded corneas, restricted joint movement, and high plasma levels of lysosomal enzymes - fatal in childhood

I cell disease
Inherited lysosomal storage disorder
Defect in phosphotransferase - Golgi fails to phosphorylate mannose residues (mannose 6 phosphate) on glycoproteins so proteins are screted extracellularly rather than delivered to lysosomes

Think clouds and corn on the golf course - restricted movement because you can't see - Eyes - I cell disease

63

I cell disease

Coarse facial features, clouded corneas, restricted joint movement, and high plasma levels of lysosomal enzymes - fatal in childhood

Inherited lysosomal storage disorder
Defect in phosphotransferase - Golgi fails to phosphorylate mannose residues (mannose 6 phosphate) on glycoproteins so proteins are screted extracellularly rather than delivered to lysosomes

Think clouds and corn on the golf course - restricted movement because you can't see - Eyes - I cell disease

64

Phosphotransferase

I cell disease

65

Signal recognition particle

Abundant cytosolic ribonucleoprotein that trafficks proteins from the ribosome to the RER. Absent or dysfunctional SRP causes proteins to accumulate in the cytosol.

66

COPI

Golgi --> Golgi (retrograde)
Golgi --> ER

COPII is anterograde
Gotta go backwards to fix your past before you can go forward! said the Cop

67

COP II

Golgi -> Golgi (anterograde)
ER -> Golgi
Gotta go backwards to fix your past before you can go forward! said the Cop

68

Clathrin

Golgi -> lysosomes
Plasma membrane -> endosomes (receptor mediated endocytosis)

69

Peroxisome

Catabolizes very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids, and amino acids

70

Proteasome

Degrades damaged or ubiquitin tagged protein

71

Peroxisome vs proteasome?

Peroxisome is fatty acids and amino acids
Proteasome is protein

72

Dynein versus kinesin?

Dynein is Minus end directed microtubule transport - goes TOWARD the cell center

73

Drugs that act on microtubules?

Pack My Bendy Greasy Collar of Vines
Paclitaxel
Mebendazole
Griseofulvin
Colchicine
Vincristine/Vinblastine

74

Axonemal dynein

ATPase ta links peripheral 9 doublets in cilia and causes bending of cilium by differential sliding of doublets.

75

Infertility, Increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, bronchiectasis, recurrent sinusitis, situs inversus

Kartagener syndrome - primary ciliary dyskinesia

76

Actin and myosin versus microtubules versus intermediate filaments

Actin / myosin - Muscle contraction
Microtubule - Movement
Intermediate filament - Structure

77

Intermediate filament stain - vimentin

Stains Connective tissue
Vines connect

78

Intermediate filament stain - Desmin

Stains muscle
Desmond is muscular

79

Cytokeratin stain

Epithelial cell

80

GFAP stain

NeuroGlia

81

Neurofilament stain

Neurons

82

Ouabain

Inhibits by binding to K+ site on sodium potassium pump

83

Cardiac glycosides

Directly inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase which leads to indirect inhibition of Na+/Ca2+ exchange and increases Ca2+ and cardiac contractility

84

Collagen types

Be so totally cool, read books
Type I - bone, skin, tendon (dentin, fascia, cornea, late wound repair)
Type II - Cartilage (including hyaline), vitreous body, nucleus pulposis (CaVerN)
Type III - Reticulin - skin, blood vessels, uterus, fetal tissue, granulation tissue (Grub fuss)?
Type IV - Basement membrane, basal lamina, lens

I - bone
II - cartwolage
III - threeD (vascular Ehlers-Danlos)
IV - under the floor

85

Glomerulonephritis, ESRD, hearing loss, may be eye problems

Basket-weave appearance on EM of the glomeruli.

Alport syndrome. Caused by Type IV collagen mutation.

86

Which type of collagen is targeted by antibodies in Goodpasture?

GBM

87

Type II collagen

Cartilage, Vitreous body, Nucleus pulposis

88

Type IV collagen

Basement membrane
Basal lamina
Lens

89

Type I collagen

Bone, Skin, Tendon, Dentin, fascia, cornea, late wound repair

90

Type III

Reticulin - skin, blood vessels, uterus, fetal tissue, granulation tissue

91

Steps of collagen synthesis

1. Synthesis - translation of preprocollagen (Gly-X-Y, usu proline or lysine)
2. Hydroxylation of proline and lysine residues - requires VITAMIN C
3. Glycosylation of pro-alpha-chain hydroxylysine residues and formation of procollagen thru disulfide bonds (triple helix) -- OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA
4. Exocytosis into cellular space
5. Cleavage of terminal disulfide-rich regions -> becomes insoluble tropocollagen
6. Covaent lysine-hydroxylase cross linking by lysyl oxidase occurs to make collagen fibrils. EHLERS DANLOS OR MENKES DISEASE

92

Multiple fractures with minimal trauma; may occur during the birth process. Hearing loss. Dental imperfections.

Also blue sclera

Dental imperfections due to lack of dentin

Osteogenesis imperfecta, due to defect in triple helix formation in the glycosylation step of collagen I synthesis.
Most common form is Autosomal Dominant.

93

Hyperextensible skin, tendency to bleed / easy bruising, hypermobile joints, joint dislocation, berry and aortic aneurysms, organ rupture.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

Classical type - joint and skin symptoms - Type V collagen mutation
Vascular type - Deficient Type III collagen

94

What causes Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?

6+ types but listed as defective crosslinking (final step in collagen pathway) in the book.

95

Brittle, kinky hair, growth retardation, hypotonia

Menkes Disease

Connective tissue disease caused by impaired copper absorption and transport - leads to decreased activity of lysyl oxidase (since copper is the necessary cofactor).

96

Amino acids in collagen?

Glycin, proline and lysine (the latter 2 hydroxylated)

97

Amino acids in elastin?

Proline and glycine, nonhydroxylated

98

Fibrillin

Glycoprotein forming sheath around elastin, mutated in Marfan syndrome

99

Indirect ELISA

Use a test antigen to see if a specific antibody is present in the patient's blood - a secondary antibody coupled to a color generating enzyme is added to detect the first antibody

100

Direct ELISA

Use a test antibody to see if a specific antibody is present in patient's blood - secondary antibody coupled to a color-generating enzyme is added to detect antigen.

101

What can you use to perform karyotyping?

Blood, bone marrow, amniotic fluid, or placental tissue

102

Variable expressivity versus incomplete penetrance

Incomplete penetrance is the all or none one

103

Pleiotropy

One gene contributes to multiple phenotypic effects

104

Linkage disequilibrium

Tendency for certain alleles at 2 linked loci to occur together more often than expected by chance

105

Locus heterogeneity

Mutations at different loci can produce a similar phenotype

Albinism

106

Allelic heterogeneity

Different mutations in the same locus produce the same phenotype

107

Polycystic fibrous displasia, unilateral cafe au lait spots, autonomous endocrine hormone excess with precocious puberty

McCune-Albright syndrome - An example of a mosaic disorder

Mutation of the GNAS1 gene involved in G protein signalling which prevents cAMP downregulation.

108

Uniparental disomy

Offspring receives 2 copies of a chromosome from 1 parent and none from another

109

Heterodisomy

Indicates a meiosis 1 error - heterozygous

110

Isodisomy

Indicates a meiosis II error - homozygous - or postzygotic chromosomal duplication of one of a pair and loss of the other

111

Frequency of X linked recessive disease in males vs females

q vs q^2

112

Hyperphagia, hypogonadism, hypotonia, obesity, intellectual disability

Prader-Willi syndrome

113

Inappropriate laughter, seizures, ataxia, severe intellectual disability

Angelman sydndrome, paternally imprinted

114

Hypophosphatemic rickets

Inherited X linked dominant disorder resulting in increased phosphate wasting at the proximal tubule - presents like Rickets.

115

Myopathy, latic acidosis, and CNS disease.
Muscle biopsy shows ragged red fibers

Mitochondrial myopathy - a secondary failure in oxidative phosphorylation

116

Telangiectasia, recurrent epistaxis, skin discolorations, AVMs, GI bleeding, hematuria

Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome / Hereditory Hemorrhagic telangiectasia

Associated with TGF-beta

As we run (osler weber rendu), we tug a betafish (TGFbeta) which bleeds everywhere

117

Pectus excavatum

Chest having a sunken in appearance

118

Which way do the lenses subluxate in marfans?

Upward and temporally

119

Chromosome associated with FAP?

APC gene, chromosome 5, 5 letters in polyp

120

Chromosome associated with ADPKD?

16 letters in polycystic kidney
85% cases due to PKD1 mutation
remainder due to PKD2 (chromosome 4)

121

Most common gene defect associated with CF?

CFTR defect on chromosome 7 - commonly a deletion of Phe508

Fennel gives you cysts or is made of fiber

122

What electrolyte imbalances do you see with CF?

Hypokalemia and contraction alkalosis because H2O / Na+ losses lead to concomitant renal K+ and H+ wasting

123

Meconium ileus

Bowel obstruction, occurs when the meconium of the newborn is thicker and stickier than normal meconium

124

Treatment for CF

N-acetylcysteine to loosen mucus plugs (cleaves disulfide bonds within mucus glycoproteins)
Dornase alpha (DNAse) to clear leukocytic debris

125

X-linked disorders

Brutish Dutch Hunters Give Fat Bloody Leeches to the Wise Blind Oracle

Bruton agammaglobulinemia
Duchenne
Hunter Syndrome
G6PD
Fabry
Hemophelia
Lesch-Nyhan
Wiskott-Aldrich
Ocular albinism
Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency

126

Diagnosis of Duchenne

Loss of dystrophin -- myonecrosis
Increase CPK and aldolase
Western blot, muscle biopsy to confirm

127

Myotonia, muscle wasting, frontal balding, cataracts, testicular atrophy, arrhythmia

Myotonic Type I

Defect in myotonin protein kinase (DMPK gene) - specifically CTG trinucleotide repeat expansion

Think bald guy who won't let go (myotonia) of his love (arrhythmia/heartache) even tho he has cataracts, testicular atrophy...

128

Trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases

Try hunting for my fried eggs
X-girlfriend's first aid helped ace my test

Fragile X - CGG
Friedrich - GAA
Huntington - CAG
Myotonic dystrophy - CTG

129

Intellectual disability, elfin facies, hypercalcemia, well-developed verbal skills, extreme friendliness with strangers, cardiovascular problems

Williams syndrome - congenital microdeletion of long arm of chromosome 7

Think Robin Williams; he was lucky (7) to have elfin facies, strong verbal skills, extreme friendliness, also had heart surgery so cards problem
He was hyper in california (hypercalcemia)

130

What type of heart defect is associated with Downs?

Ostium primum type ASD

131

Small white or grayish brown spots on the periphery of the iris due to connective tisue aggregation

Brushfield spots - Down syndrome

132

First semester ultrasound for Downs

increased nuchal translucency and hypoplastic nasal bone
Serum PAPP-A down
Free beta HCG is up

133

Second trimester quad for Downs

down up down up
alpha feto, beta hcg, estriol, inhibin a

134

Severe intellectual disability with rocker-bottom feet, micrognathia, low-set ears, clenched hands, prominent occiput, congenital heart disease; death in 1 year

Edwards syndrome - trisomy 18

135

Findings for Edward syndrome

PAPP A and free beta hCG down in first trimester
Quad is all don

136

Severe intellectual disability, rocker bottom feet, microopthalmia, microcephaly, cleft lip and palate, holoprosencephaly, polydactyly, CHD, death in 1 year

13
first trimester creen - decreased beta hcg, PAPP-A, and increased nuchal translucency

137

Robertsonian translocation

Nonreciprocal chromosomal translocation that commonly involves 13, 14, 15, 21, 22 - long arms fuse with long arms

138

Cri du Chat

chromosome 5 microdiletion

Microcephaly
Moderate to severe disability
HIgh pitched crying / mewing
epicanthal folds
Cardiac abnormality - VSD

Cats venture (ventricles) toward the crying baby and give him a high 5.

139

Is toxicity more common for fat or water soluble vitamins?

Fat soluble

140

Which water soluble vitamins don't wash out easily?

B12 and folate (stored in liver)

141

Night blindness, dry, scaly skin, alopecia, corneal degeneration, immune suppression

Vitamin A deficiency

Think blind, scaly, hairless, sick - sounds like Lord Voldemort's soul

142

Arthralgias, skin changes / scaly, alopecia, cerebral edema, osteoporosis, hepatic abnormalities

Also pseudotumor cerebri, teratogenic

Vitamin A excess symptoms.

143

What vitamin is used to treat measles?

Vitamin A

144

What vitamin is used to treat AML, subtype M3?

A

145

What is thiamine a cofactor for?

1. Pyruvate dehyrogenase
2. alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
3. transketolase
4. branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase

146

Confusion, opthalmoplegia, ataxia

Wernicke-Korsakoff - also confabulation, personality change, memory loss. Damage to medial dorsal nucleus of thalamus and mammilary bodies

147

Polyneuritis and symmetrical muscle wasting associated with thiamine

Dry beri beri

148

HIgh output cardiac failure (dilated) and edema associated with thiamine deficiency

Wet beri beri

149

How do you diagnose thiamine deficiency?

Increase in RBC transketolase activity following vitamin B1 administration

150

Cheilosis, corneal vascularization, angular cheilitis, glossitis, scaly dermatitis

Vitamin B2 deficiency

151

What vitamins does niacin need to be synthesized?

B2, B6

152

Diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis

Niacin deficiency, pellagra

153

Casal necklace or hyperpigmentation of sun-exposed limbs

Niacin deficiency, pellagra

154

Hartnup disease

Decreased tryptophan absorption

155

Carcinoid syndrome

Vasoactive tumor substances enter systemic circulation - flushing, diarrhea, serotonin-induced fibrosis of valvular epithelium

156

Dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency

B5 - pantothenate deficiency

157

B5

Essential component of coenzyme A and fatty acid synthase

158

B6

Converted to pyridoxal phosphate: used in
GladiaTr
Glycogen phosphorylase
Decarboxylation rxns
Transamination rxns (AST, ALT)

Synthesis of neurotransmitters, cystathionine, heme, niacine, histamine, etc

159

Convulsions, hyperirritability, peripheral neuropathy, sideroblastic anemia

B6 deficiency

160

B7

Cofactor for carboxylation enzymes :
1. Pyruvate carboxylase
2. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase
3. Propionyl-CoA carboxylase

161

Dermatitis, alopecia, enteritis after eating raw egg whites

B7 deficiency

162

Folic acid

Coenzyme for 1-carbon transfer/methylation reactions
No neurologic symptoms

163

Drugs that can cause folate deficiency

Prim Fools Trim Pyromaniac phoenixes with no Defense Method

Primidone
Folate
Trimethoprim
Pyrimethamine
Phenytoin
Diphenhydantoin / anticonvulsants
Methotrexate

164

Diphyllobothrium latum

Can cause b12 deficiency

165

Subacute combined degeneration

Degeneration of the dorsal columns, lateral corticospinal tracts, and spinocerebellar tracts due to abnormal myelin
association with B12 deficiency

166

How could you distinguish B12 from folate deficiency?

Methymalonic acid increases with B12 but not with THF deficiency

Homocystine increases with both

167

Functions of Vitamin C?

- Facilitates iron absorption
- necessary for dopamine beta hydroxylase (dopamine to NE)
- hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis

168

Swollen gums, bruising, hemarthrosis, anemia, poor wound healing, perifollicular and subperiosteal hemorrhages, corkscrew hair

Vitamin C deficiency, scurvey

169

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, increased risk of iron toxicity in certain ppl

Vitamin C excess

170

D2

Ergocalciferol - ingested from plants

171

D3

Cholecalciferol consumed in milk and sun-exposed skin

172

25-OH D3

Storage form

173

1,25-OH2 D3

Calcitriol, active form

174

Bone pain and deformity, muscle weakness, hypocalcemic tetany

Rickets, vitamin D deficiency

175

What vitamin should you give a breastfed infant?

D

176

Hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, loss of appetite, stupor

Vitamin D excess

177

When do you see vitamin D excess?

Sarcoidosis - increased activation of vit D by epithelioid macrophages

178

Hemolytic anemia, acanthocytosis, muscle weakness, posterior column and spinocerebellar tract demyelination

Vitamin E / tocopherol deficiency

179

Tocopherol

Vitamin E

180

What does vitamin E do?

Antoxident - protects erythrocytes and membranes from free radical damage.

181

What vitamin should you inject at birth?

Vitamin K

182

Neonatal hemorrhage with increased PT and PTT but normal bleeding time.

Vitamin K deficiency.

183

What does Vitamin K do?


Cofactor for gamma carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on various proteins

184

Delayed wound healing, hypogonadism, decreased adult hair (axillary, facial, pubic), dysgeusia, anosmia, acrodermatitis enteropathica, alcoholic cirrhosis

Zinc deficiency

185

Kwashiorkor

Malnutrition
Edema
Anemia
Fatty Liver

Protein deficiency

186

Marasmus

Total calorie malnutrition resulting in tissue and muscle wasting, loss of subcutaneous fat, and variable edema.

187

Fomepizole

Inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase

188

Disulfiram

inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase

189

Phosphorylase

Adds inorganic phosphate onto substrate without using ATP

190

Dehydrogenase

Catalyzes REDOX reactions

191

What takes place in both mitochondria and cytoplasm?

Heme synthesis, urea cycle, gluconeogenesis
HUGS take 2

192

Rate determining enzyme of glycolysis

PFK-1
AMP+, F26bisphospate+
ATP-, Citrate -
Frump Cat at JFK

193

Gluconeogenesis rate determining enzyme

Fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase
Citrate +
AMP-, fructose 2,6 bisphosphate -
Sit the frump

194

TCA cycle rate determining enzyme

Isocitrate dehydrogenase
ADP+
ATP-, NADH-
Add ice to Nat

195

Glycogenesis rate determining enzyme

Glycogen synthase
Glucose 6 phosphate+, insuline +, cortisol +
Epinephrine -, glucagon-
Glue in court | glues epic gentleman

196

Glycogenolysis

Glycogen phosphorylase
Epinephrine+, glucagon+, AMP+
Glucose-6-phosphate-, insulin-, ATP-
Epic glue in the ampitheater glues insurers atrociously

197

HMP shunt

Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase - G6PD
NADP+
NADPH-
HMph, nope, nope

198

De novo pyrimidine synthesis

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II

199

De novo purine synthesis

Glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) amidotransferase
AMP-, IMP-, GMP-

200

Urea cycle

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I
N acetylglutamate+

201

Fatty acid synthesis

Acetyl-Coa carboxylase (ACC) - turns acetyl coa into malonyl coa
Insulin+, citrate+
Glucagon-, palmitoyl coa-
Inside the fat citrus there was a newly synthesized glue palace

202

Fatty acid oxidation

Carnitine acyltransferase I
Malonyl coa-
Mal gets a fat new car

203

Ketogenesis

HMG-coa synthase

204

Cholesterol synthesis

HMG coA reductase
Insulin+, thyroxine+
Glucagon-, cholesterol-
In thy cold glum home we burned coal.