Flashcards in Biological Dispositions in Learning Deck (22):
What is preparedness?
innate tendency to more easily learn certain types of behaviour
What is taste aversion conditioning?
food item that has been paired with illness becomes conditioned aversive stimulus
How is taste aversion conditioning different from other forms of CC?
formation of associations after long delays, one trial conditioning, specificity of associations
What is latent inhibition?
more likely to associate a relatively novel item with sickness than a familiar one
What is overshadowing?
more likely to develop aversion to stronger tasting food item than milder tasting food
Rats will more readily learn to __ than __
press lever to obtain food, avoid shock
What did Bolles study which looked at biological predispositions for avoidance responces
Species specific defence reactions
What is instinctive drift?
an instance of classical conditioning in which a genetically based, fixed action pattern gradually emerges and displaces the behaviour that is being operantly conditioned (interferes)
What is sign tracking?
an organism approaches a stimulus that signals the presentation of an appetitive event
What is autoshaping?
type of sign tracking in which a pigeon comes to automatically peck at a key because the key light has been associated with contingent delivery of food
What is negative automaintenance?
sign tracking persists despite the resultant loss of a reinforcer
What is adjunctive behaviour?
excessive pattern of behaviour that emerges as a bi-product of an intermittent schedule of reinforcement for some other behaviour (or schedule induced behaviour)
What reinforcement schedules are commonly used when developing adjunctive behaviours?
fixed interval or fixed time
Adjunctive behaviour is affected by levels of deprivation. __ deprivation, __ adjunctive behaviour is as a bi-product
What is the optimal interval time between reinforcers for the development of adjunctive behaviours
When do adjunctive behaviours usually occur?
In the period immediately after an intermittent reinforcer is consumed (interreinforcement intervals)
What is a displacement activity?
an apparently irrelevant activity sometimes displayed by animals when confronted by conflict of thwarted from attaining a goal
What is good about displacement activity?`
provides more diversified range of behaviours in particular setting, help animals remain in situation where a significant reinforcer may actually become available
What is activity anorexia?
an abnormally high level of activity and low level of food intake generated by exposure to a time restricted schedule of feeding
In activity anorexia, which behaviour is considered the adjunctive behaviour?
What are two underlying mechanisms believed to be involved with activity anorexia
addiction to endorphin high, survival value (food supply)