Flashcards in Observational Learning and Rule Governed Behaviour Deck (24):
What is observational learning?
behaviour of a model is witnessed by an observer and the observers behaviour is subsequently changed (WATCH AND LEARN)
What is contagious behaviour?
a more-or-less instinctive/reflexive behaviour triggered by the occurance of the name behaviour in another individual
What is stimulus enhancement?
the probability of a behaviour is changed because an individual's attention is drawn to a particular item/location by the behaviour of another individual (behaviour makes you aware of stimulus)
What are vicarious emotional responces?
classically conditioned emotional responses that result from seeing those emotional responses exhibited by others
How are vicarious emotional responses like high-order conditioning?
emotional reactions of others serve as conditioned stimuli
When can observational learning occur during the aquisition of an operant behaviour?
when sensitive to consequence of models behav, whether observer recieves reinforcement for watching, observer has sufficient skills, personal characteristics of model
When can observational learning occur during the performance of an operant behaviour?
we see model behav reinforced, if we will experience reinforcement, own history of reinforcement for that behav
What is imitation?
copying the actions/behaviours of another
What is true imitation?
a form of obervational learning that involves the close duplication of a novel behaviour
What is generalised imitation?
the tendency to imitate a new modelled behaviour with no specific reinforcement for doing so
What is anthropomorphism?
assuming human motives/characteristics when observing animal behaviour
In the bobo doll experiments, which type of imitation was observed in the kids
In the bobo doll experiments, what reduced aggression in the trials
disapproving comments, and if disapproving parent was present in the room
What is rule governed behaviour?
behaviour that has been generated through exposure to rules (language)
What does the extent to which we follow instructions depend largely on?
the consequences that we have recieved for following instructions
What are the disadvantages of rule governed behaviour?
instructions may only lead to rudimental knowledge, insensitive to actual contingencies of reinforcement in certain setting
What are personal rules for self regulation?
verbal descriptions of contingencies that we present to ourselves to influence our behaviour
What is say-do correspondence?
occurs when there is a close match between when we say we are going to do and what we actually do at a later time
What are implementation intentions?
clearly specified when, where, and how statements about how a goal is going to be accomplished
What are personal process rules?
personal rules that indicate the specific process by which a task is to be accomplished
What is self-efficacy?
extent to which individuals have the competencies to perform a particular behaviour
__ self efficacy, person believes that a difficult task can be mastered; __self efficacy, person avoids difficult task
According to Bandura, how can people learn through social context?
using principles of classical and operant conditioning, observational learning, modelling and imitation