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Flashcards in Schedules and Theories of Reinforcement Deck (25):
1

What is a continuous reinforcement schedule?

each specified responce is reinforced (every occurance)

2

What is a intermediate (partial) reinforcement schedule?

only some responses are reinforced

3

What are fixed ratio schedules?

reinforcement is contingent upon a FIXED, predictable NUMBER of responces

4

What is ratio strain?

a disruption in responding due to an overly demanding response requirement (burn out)

5

What are variable ratio schedules?

reinforcement is contingent upon a VARYING, unpredictable NUMBER of responces (average)

6

What are fixed interval schedules?

reinforcement is contingent upon the first response after a FIXED, predictable PERIOD OF TIME

7

What are variable interval schedules?

reinforcement is contingent upon the first response after a VARYING, unpredictable PERIOD OF TIME (average)

8

Which interval schedule has low and high resistance to extinction?

fixed=low, variable=high

9

What is a fixed duration schedule?

reinforcement contingent upon performing a behaviour continuously throughout a fixed, predictable period of time

10

What is a variable duration schedule?

reinforcement contingent upon performing a behaviour continuously throughout a varying, unpredictable period of time

11

What is differential reinforcement of high rates?

reinforcement is contingent upon emitting at least a certain number of responses in a certain period of time (for fast rate - ensures high response rate)

12

What is differential reinforcement of low rates?

a minimum amount of time must be passed between each response before reinforcement will be delivered (slow rate)

13

What is differential reinforcement of paced responding?

reinforcement is contingent upon emitting a series of responses at a set rate (good sense/rhythm)

14

What is a fixed time schedule?

reinforcer delivered following a fixed predictable period of time regardless of organism's behaviour (free)

15

What is a variable time schedule?

reinforcer delivered following a varying, unpredictable period of time, regardless of organism's behaviour

16

What happens if a noncontingent of reinforcement is superimposed on a regular contingent schedule?

rate of response on noncontingent schedules will decrease

17

What are conjunctive schedules?

the requirements of two or more simple schedules must be met before a reinforcer is delivered

18

What are adjusting schedules?

the response requirement changes as a function of the organism's performance while responding for the previous reinforcer

19

What are chained schedules?

consists of a sequence of two or more simple schedules each of which has it's own discriminative stimulus and the last of which results in a terminal reinforcer (systematic, particular order)

20

What is the goal gradient effect?

an increase in the strength and/or efficiency of responding as one draws near to the goal (backward chaining)

21

Describe Hull's drive reduction theory.

an event is reinforcing to the extent that is is associated with a reduction in some kind of physiological drive (eg. hunger drive - search food - eat food - no hunger)

22

Describe the premack principle.

states that a high probability behaviour can be used to reinforce a low probability behaviour (eg. first you work then you play)

23

What is the response deprivation hypothesis?

behaviour can serve as a reinforcer when access to the behaviour is restricted and it's frequency thereby falls below it's preferred level of occurence (baseline)

24

What is the behavioural bliss point approach?

an organism with free access toalternative activities will distribute it's behaviour in such a way as to maximise overall reinforcement (maximise overall reinforcement)

25

What are the 7 elements of token economy?

target behaviours, type of token, back up reinforcers, reinforcement schedules, exchange criterion, time/place for exchange, response cost