Flashcards in Ch1: IntroL Deck (20):
relatively permanent change in behaviour that results from some type of experience (can be immediate or delayed and focuses on processes)
any activity of an organism that can be observed or somehow measured.
What were Artistole's 4 laws of association?
Similarity, contrast, contiguity, frequency
How did the British Empiricists view learning?
all knowledge is a function of experience
What is functionalism?
involves the processes involved with the adaption of the mind JAMES
What is behaviourism?
prediction and control of behaviour (observable behaviour) WATSON
What does introspection involve?
ppl trained to describe thoughts/feelings related to a particular stimuli
What is structualism?
possible to determine structure of the mind by identifying the basic elements that compose it WUNDT
Describe Watson's methodological behaviourism.
only observable behaviour, clear research questions, internal/unconscious drives excluded from analysis, stimulus-responce theory
Describe Hull's Neobehaviourism.
operationalising unobservable constructs, utilises intervening variables in the form of hypothesised physiological processes to help explain behaviour, needs reinforcement
Describe Tolman's cognitive behaviourism.
"whole is more than the sum of it's parts", intervening variables in the form of hypothesised cognitive processes, overall pattern of behaviour directed towards particular outcomes, cognitive map
What is latent learning?
learning despite the absence of evidence of learning
What does Bandura's SLT involve?
observational learning and cognitive variables in explaining human behaviour
What is reciprocal determination?
assumption that environmental events, observable behaviour and person variables reciprocally influence each other
What does Skinner's radical behaviouralism involve?
emphasises the influence of environment on observable behaviour, and rejects the use of internal events to explain behaviour and views thoughts and feelings as behaviours that need to be explained
How did Skinner view internal events?
they can be included in analysis only if used as "another behaviour" alonf with overt behaviours (eg overt and covert = same rules)
What is countercontrol?
manipulation of environmental events to alter/impact on behaviour
How is operant conditioning like natural selection?
adaptive behaviours tend to be reinforced
What is behavioural analysis?
basic science that grew out of radical behaviourism (principles of operant conditioning)