Ch1: IntroL Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch1: IntroL Deck (20):
1

Define learning.

relatively permanent change in behaviour that results from some type of experience (can be immediate or delayed and focuses on processes)

2

Define behaviour.

any activity of an organism that can be observed or somehow measured.

3

What were Artistole's 4 laws of association?

Similarity, contrast, contiguity, frequency

4

How did the British Empiricists view learning?

all knowledge is a function of experience

5

What is functionalism?

involves the processes involved with the adaption of the mind JAMES

6

What is behaviourism?

prediction and control of behaviour (observable behaviour) WATSON

7

What does introspection involve?

ppl trained to describe thoughts/feelings related to a particular stimuli

8

What is structualism?

possible to determine structure of the mind by identifying the basic elements that compose it WUNDT

9

Describe Watson's methodological behaviourism.

only observable behaviour, clear research questions, internal/unconscious drives excluded from analysis, stimulus-responce theory

10

Describe Hull's Neobehaviourism.

operationalising unobservable constructs, utilises intervening variables in the form of hypothesised physiological processes to help explain behaviour, needs reinforcement

11

Describe Tolman's cognitive behaviourism.

"whole is more than the sum of it's parts", intervening variables in the form of hypothesised cognitive processes, overall pattern of behaviour directed towards particular outcomes, cognitive map

12

What is latent learning?

learning despite the absence of evidence of learning

13

What does Bandura's SLT involve?

observational learning and cognitive variables in explaining human behaviour

14

What is reciprocal determination?

assumption that environmental events, observable behaviour and person variables reciprocally influence each other

15

What does Skinner's radical behaviouralism involve?

emphasises the influence of environment on observable behaviour, and rejects the use of internal events to explain behaviour and views thoughts and feelings as behaviours that need to be explained

16

How did Skinner view internal events?

they can be included in analysis only if used as "another behaviour" alonf with overt behaviours (eg overt and covert = same rules)

17

What is countercontrol?

manipulation of environmental events to alter/impact on behaviour

18

How is operant conditioning like natural selection?

adaptive behaviours tend to be reinforced

19

What is behavioural analysis?

basic science that grew out of radical behaviourism (principles of operant conditioning)

20

What is applied behavioural analysis?

technology of behaviour in which basic principles of behaviour are applied to analysising and solving real life problems (behaviour modification)