Escape, Avoidance, and Punishment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Escape, Avoidance, and Punishment Deck (20):

What is escape behaviour?

performance of the behaviour allows us to escape aversive stimulus


What is avoidance behaviour?

performance of the behaviour prevents the aversive stimulus from occurring


What is the two process theory of avoidance?

two processes are involved in learning a response - cCC of a fear response to a CS, and opernant conditioning, which moving away from CS is negatively reinforced by a reduction in fear


What is the anxiety conservation hypothesis?

avoidance responses usually occur so quickly that there is insufficient exposure to the CS for the conditioned fear to fully extinguish


What is the one process theory?

the act of avoidance is negatively reinforced simply by the lower rate of aversive stimulation with which it is associated


Do animals or humans appear to condition less readilly to experimental avoidance



OCD typically involves an _ avoidance response, while phobic behaviour involves a _ avoidance response

active, passive


What is exposure and response prevention?

method of treating OCD that involves prolonged exposure to the anxiety-arousing event while not engaging in the compulsive behaviour pattern that reduces the anxiety


Combined, graded exposure of systematic desensitisation and prolonged exposure of flooding therapy, create...

exposure and response prevention


What is timeout?

A type of negative punishment, which involves the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period of time following the occurance of a problem behaviour (should be brief)


What is response cost

A type of negative punishment which involves the removal of a specific reinforcer following the occrance of a problem behaviour (requires more careful analysis of the situation)


What is intrinsic punishment

punishment that is an inherent aspect of behaviour being punished; activity itself is punishing


What is extrinsic punishment?

punishment that is not an inherent aspect of behaviour being punished; simply follows behaviour


What are some of the problems of using punishment

punishing maladaptive behav does not strengthen adaptive behav, generalised suppression of other behaviours, person delivering punishment may become discriminative stimulus, strong emotional response/aggressive reaction, may teach that punishing is acceptable for controlling behav.


What are the benefits of punishment?

can sometimes lead to increase in social behaviour, sometimes improved mood, increase attention, should be immediate, should consistently follow each occurance of unwanted behaviour, neg punishment more pref than pos punishment, when accompanied by explanation, when aided with reinforcement


What is the conditioned suppression theory?

assumes punishment does not weaken a behaviour but instead produces an emotional response that interferes with the occurance of the behaviour


What is the avoidance theory of punishment?

punishment actually involves a type of avoidance conditioning, in which avoidance response consists of any behaviour other than behaviour being punished


What is the premack approach to punishment?

a low probability behaviour can be used to punish a high probability behaviour


What is learned helplessness?

a decrement in learning ability that results from repeated exposure to uncontrollable, aversive events


What is Masserman's Experimental Neuroisis?

experimentally produced disorder in which animals exposed to unpredictable events develop neurotic like symptoms (overlap of uncontrollability and infrequent and unpredictable exposure to aversive events)