Flashcards in Escape, Avoidance, and Punishment Deck (20):
What is escape behaviour?
performance of the behaviour allows us to escape aversive stimulus
What is avoidance behaviour?
performance of the behaviour prevents the aversive stimulus from occurring
What is the two process theory of avoidance?
two processes are involved in learning a response - cCC of a fear response to a CS, and opernant conditioning, which moving away from CS is negatively reinforced by a reduction in fear
What is the anxiety conservation hypothesis?
avoidance responses usually occur so quickly that there is insufficient exposure to the CS for the conditioned fear to fully extinguish
What is the one process theory?
the act of avoidance is negatively reinforced simply by the lower rate of aversive stimulation with which it is associated
Do animals or humans appear to condition less readilly to experimental avoidance
OCD typically involves an _ avoidance response, while phobic behaviour involves a _ avoidance response
What is exposure and response prevention?
method of treating OCD that involves prolonged exposure to the anxiety-arousing event while not engaging in the compulsive behaviour pattern that reduces the anxiety
Combined, graded exposure of systematic desensitisation and prolonged exposure of flooding therapy, create...
exposure and response prevention
What is timeout?
A type of negative punishment, which involves the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period of time following the occurance of a problem behaviour (should be brief)
What is response cost
A type of negative punishment which involves the removal of a specific reinforcer following the occrance of a problem behaviour (requires more careful analysis of the situation)
What is intrinsic punishment
punishment that is an inherent aspect of behaviour being punished; activity itself is punishing
What is extrinsic punishment?
punishment that is not an inherent aspect of behaviour being punished; simply follows behaviour
What are some of the problems of using punishment
punishing maladaptive behav does not strengthen adaptive behav, generalised suppression of other behaviours, person delivering punishment may become discriminative stimulus, strong emotional response/aggressive reaction, may teach that punishing is acceptable for controlling behav.
What are the benefits of punishment?
can sometimes lead to increase in social behaviour, sometimes improved mood, increase attention, should be immediate, should consistently follow each occurance of unwanted behaviour, neg punishment more pref than pos punishment, when accompanied by explanation, when aided with reinforcement
What is the conditioned suppression theory?
assumes punishment does not weaken a behaviour but instead produces an emotional response that interferes with the occurance of the behaviour
What is the avoidance theory of punishment?
punishment actually involves a type of avoidance conditioning, in which avoidance response consists of any behaviour other than behaviour being punished
What is the premack approach to punishment?
a low probability behaviour can be used to punish a high probability behaviour
What is learned helplessness?
a decrement in learning ability that results from repeated exposure to uncontrollable, aversive events