Flashcards in Extinction and Stimulus Control Deck (25):
What is extinction?
nonreinforcement of a previously reinforced responce (decrease response strength)
What is extinction burst?
a temporary increase in the frequency and intensity of responding when extinction is first implemented
What are some of the side effects of extinction?
extinction burst, increase in variability, emotional behaviour, aggression, resurgence, depression, inadvertent strengthening of behaviour is extinction procedure is stopped
What is resurgence?
reappearance during extinction of other's behaviours that had once been effective in obtaining reinforcement (reappearance of successful behaviour)
What is resistance to extinction?
extent to which responding persists after an extinction procedure has been implemented (persistent response)
What is partial reinforcement effect?
behaviour that has been maintained on an intermediate schedule of reinforcement, will extinguish slower than behaviour maintained on a continuous schedule (less frequent, longer it takes to realise its gone)
The _ reinforcers, the _ the resistance to extinction
The _ the level of deprivation, the _ resistance to extinction
What is spontaneous recovery?
the reapearrance of an extinguished response following a rest period after extinction (repeated efforts required for learning due to presence of discriminative stimulus)
What is differential reinforcement of Other Behaviour?
enhancement to extinction process by both extinguishing target behaviour and reinforcing the occursance of a replacement behaviour (simultaneously extinguish one and reinforce another)
What occurs during functional communication training?
the behaviour of clearly and appropriately communicating one's desires is differentially reinforced
How does the discriminative stimulus increase the likelyhood of a behaviour occuring?
it signals availability of reinforcement to increase probability of response
What is stimulus control?
the presence of the discriminative stimulus reliably affects the probability of the behaviour
What is stimulus generalisation?
the tendency for an operant response to be emitted in the presence of a stimulus that is similar to the discriminative stimulus (more simlar,stronger)
What is stimulus discrimination
tendency for an operant response to be emitted more in the presence of one stimulus than another (more generalised, less descrimination)
What is discrimination training?
as applied to operant conditioning, involves reinforcement of responding in the presence of one stimulus and not another
What is the peak-shift effect?
the peak of a generalisation gradient following discrimination training will shift from the discriminative stimulus to a stimulus that is further removed from the discriminative stimulus for extinction
What is a multiple schedule
consists of two or more independant schedules presented in sequence, each resulting in reinforcement and each having a distinctive discriminative stimulus
What is behavioural contract?
occurs when a change in the rate of reinforcement on one component of a multiple schedule produces an opposite change in the rate of response on another component
What is a negative contract effect?
INCREASE in the rate of reinforcement for one component produces a DECREASE in the rate of response on another component
What is positive contact effect?
DECREASE in the rate of reinforcement of one component produces an INCREASE in the rate of responce on the other component
What is anticipatory contrast?
rate of response varies inversely with an upcoming change in rate of response (anticipation of change)
What is errorless discrimination training?
gradual training procedure that minimises the number of errors (nonreinforced responses to the discriminative stimulus) and reduces adverse effects associated with discrimination training
What is fading?
process of gradually altering the intensity of a stimulus