Operant Conditioning: Intro Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Operant Conditioning: Intro Deck (27):
1

What are operant behaviours?

behaviours that are influenced by their consequences; more voluntary, affect future probability/strength of response

2

Describe Thorndike's Law of Effect...

behaviours leading to a satisfying state of affairs are strengthened or "stamped in", while other behaviours leading to an unsatisfying/annoying state of affairs are weakened or "stamped out"; extent to which consequences of behaviour are un/satisfying determine whether behaviour will be repeated

3

What is a free operant procedure

experimenter controls contingencies; but animal not forced to respond.

4

What is respondant behaviour (skinner box)?

involuntary, reflexive types of behaviour can often be classically conditioned in different situations

5

What is operant conditioning?

the future probability of a behaviour is affected by its consequences (apaptive/nonadaptive outcomes)

6

What is a reinforcer?

a consequence after a behaviour, which increases future probability of behaviour

7

What is a punisher?

a consequence after a behaviour, which decreases future probability of behaviour

8

What is extinction?

the weakening of a behaviour through the nonreinforcement of a previously reinforced behaviour (halting reinforcer)

9

What is a discriminative stimulus?

a stimulus in the presence of which responces are reinforced and in the absense of which they are not reinforced - SIGNAL that indicates a response will be followed by a reinforcer

10

What is three term contingency (ABC) ?

antecedent, behaviour consequence (descriminative stimulus, operant behaviour, reinforcer/punisher)

11

What is the difference between a discriminative stimulus for punishment and for reinforcement?

Punish - stimulus that signals that a response will be punished; Extinction - stimulus that signals the absence of reinforcement

12

What is positive reinforcement?

consists of presentation of a stimulus (usually pleasant/rewarding) following a response, which then leads to an increase in the future strength of the response

13

What is negative reinforcement?

consists of removal of a stimulus (usually unpleasant/aversive) following a response, which then leads to an increase in the future strength of the response

14

What is positive punishment?

consists of presentation of a stimulus (usually unpleasant/aversive) following a response, which then leads to an decrease in the future strength of the response

15

What is negative punishment?

consists of removal of a stimulus (usually pleasant/rewarding) following a response, which then leads to a decrease in the future strength of the response

16

What is escape behaviour?

results in the stopping of an aversive stimulus (allows to escape)

17

What is avoidance behaviour?

occurs before aversive stimulus is presented and therefore prevents its delivery

18

Would immediate or delayed reinforcement increase the strength of the reinforcer's effect on behaviour?

Immediate

19

What is a primary reinforcer?

event that is innately reinforcing

20

What is a secondary reinforcer?

event that is reinforcing because it has been associated with another reinforcer - learned to be reinforcers

21

What is a generalised reinforcer?

has been associated with several other reinforcers

22

What is intrinsic reinforcement?

reinforcement provided by the mere act of performing the behaviour

23

What is extrinsic reinforcement?

reinforcement provided by some consequence that is external to the behaviour

24

What are natural reinforcers?

reinforcers that are typically provided for a certain behaviour (expected in setting)

25

What are contrieved (artificial) reinforcers?

reinforcers that have been deliberately arranged to modify behaviour

26

What is shaping?

gradual creation of new behaviour through reinforcement of successive approximations to behaviour (closer and closer)

27

When can external rewards undermine intrinsic motivation?

when reward is expected and tangible, and given simply for performing the behaviour