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Flashcards in Comparative Cognition Deck (17):

What is comparative cognition?

the study of information processing across a variety of species including humans


What are Tinbergen's Four Questions for Ultimate Cause and Priximate Cause?

UC - what purpose does trait serve for survival? how is this trait distributed across species?
PC - what biological/environmental events lead to expression of trait in individual? how does this trait emerge/change during a person's development


What is the biophilia hypothesis?

humans have an inherited predisposition to be drawn to nature


What method can be used to study animal memory?

delayed matching to sample


What is directed forgetting?

when you've been told to forget something and you end up with poorer memory for it


What memory abilities to food-storing birds possess?

spacial navigation abilities


What was Hans the horse able to do?

tapping (not from arithmetic though, until questioners features changed)


What feature of classical conditioning was Hans showing a subtle form of?

stimulus discrimination


What can primates destinguish in relation to numeracy?

small numbers, but not large ones


What is transitive inference?

a form of reasoning in which the relationship between two objects can be inferred by knowing the relatiohsip of each to a third object


What are lemurs able to understand in terms of relations?

hierarchies, due to social hierarchies of species


The ability to use objects in a manipulative way in order to have a desired effect shows ___ ability

high order cognitive


What is a common test to access self-awareness

mark and mirror test


Why has it been suggested that apes find it difficult to cooperate?

due to competitivness, especially with food


In sign language experiments, what test were all chimps able to pass, and what does this mean?

reference test - able to use arbitrary signs to refer to objects (learned through modeling)


What have dolphins been found to understand?

rudimentary grammatical rules


What is Nudge Theory?

the idea that by presenting choices in certain ways, you can increase the likelihood of people acting in 'better' ways, without losing freedom of choice