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Flashcards in Biology 2 Deck (170):
1

Where are the following on the kidney?

  • nephron
  • cortex
  • medulla
  • renal pelvis
  • ureter

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2

Where are the glomerulus, bowman's capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, descending loop of henle, ascending loop of henle, juxtaglomerular apparatus, distal convoluted tubule, & collecting duct 

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3

Describe interplay b/t: juxtaglomerular apparatus, renin-angiotensis pathway, aldosterone, and the distal convoluted tubules of the kidney

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4

Provide definitions for: Tidal volume, reserve volume, residual volume, & vital capacity 

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5

Draw a Hb binding curve. Show the shape of the curve for both O2 binding and CO binding. 

Demonstrate the effect of [CO2], [H+], [BPG], and temp on the O2 binding curve

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6

Draw a heart and correctly label the: 

superior and inferior vena cava, right atrium, left atrium, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, left ventricle, & aorta

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7

Where in the body are the following glands?

-Pituitary (Anterior & Posterior)

-parathyroid

-pancreas

-thyroid

-Adrenal glads (cortex & medulla)

-thyroid

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8

What regulates the anterior & posterior pituitary glands? 

The hypothalamus 

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9

What does the adrenal gland look like? Where is the cortex & where is the medulla?

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10

Tidal Volume

  • volume of air that enters and exits the lungs during an average, unforced respiration

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11

Residual Volume

  • amount of air left in the lungs after a FORCED, maximal exhalation

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12

Respiratory:

  • Inspiratory & Expiratory residual volume

(IRV & ERV)

  • Volume of additional air that can be exhaled or inhaled

after a NORMAL, UNFORCED expiration or inhalation

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13

vital capacity

  • total volume of air the lungs can hold at maximum inflation, minus the residual volume (RV) 

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14

Where does Systemic circulation flow?

  • from left ventricle 
  • through arteries,
  • arterioles,
  • capillaries,
  • venules,
  • veins,
  • vena cava, and back to the
  • right atrium 

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15

Where does PULMONARY circulation flow?

(5 steps)

RIGHT ventricle ⇒ pulmonary arteries⇒

LUNGS 

⇒pulmonary veins ⇒LEFT atrium

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16

What makes up hemoglobin?

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17

Where in the body are the thyroid and parathyroid glands?

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18

Where are cross-sectional area cand flow rate greatest, respectively, in the circulatory system?

  • cross-sectional area greatest in capillaries
  • Velocity greatest at aorta

 

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19

the descending loop of henle

  • travels into the very hypertonic medulla.
  • This section of nephron is impermeable to salts, but VERY permeable to water.
  • Water flows out of filtrate and into the medulla, concentrating the urine

20

Ascending loop of henle

  • carries filtrate out of the medulla and back into the cortex
    • this portion of loop is impermeable to water and actively transports ions out of the filtrate and into the medulla.
  • this "dumping" of salts into the medulla is the reason why it's so hypertonic.
  • top of ascending loop is less concentrated due to removal of the salt ions

21

Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

  • section of nephron b/t top of ascending loop of henle & collecting duct
  • regulates calcium, sodium, & Hydrogen [ ]s
  • MCAT wants you to focus on its SODIUM REABSORPTION
    • (as regulated by aldosterone)

22

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

  • detects decreased blood pressure in the afferent arteriole-secretes renin
  • eventually leads to increase blood volume & blood pressure
    • this increased blood pressure provides (-) feedback on the juxtaglomerular apparatus

23

Kidney: Describe the Collecting duct

  • a # of DCTs from several different nephrons dump into a shared collecting duct

CD carries filtrate

thru medulla toward the renal pelvis

  • CD becomes very WATER PERMEABLE in presence of ADH from posterior pituitary

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24

Respiratory Volumes & Capacities:

  • Describe Tidal Volume (TV)

  • volume of air that enters and exits the lungs during an average, UNFORCED respiration

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25

Respiratory: Inspiratory & expiratory reserve volume (IRV & ERV)

  • volume of additional air that can be exhaled or inhaled after a normal, unforced expiration or inhalation

26

Respiratory:

Residual volume (RV)

  • the amount of air left in the lungs after a FORCED, maximal exhalation

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27

Respiratory:

vital capacity (VC)

  • total volume of air the lungs can hold at maximum inflation
    • minus the residual volume (RV)

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28

Function of excretory system is to...(3)

  • excrete liquid & solute waste
    • (like water, excess salts, nitrogenous wastes, etc)
  • Maintains:
    • pH
    • osmolarity
    • BP

29

  • Aldosterone acts on ___ ___, causing (increase/decrease) in __ uptake-also causes ___ of __ in/out of the ___ ___ via what?

  • Acts on distal tubule
    • causing an INCREASE of Na+ uptake.
  • Causes reabsorption of Na+ OUT of the collecting duct
    • via insertion of Na+ and K+ channels and Na+/K+ ATPases in cells that line the collecting duct

30

What is the net effect of Aldosterone?

  • Where is Aldosterone produced?

INCREASES:

  1. water retention
  2. BP

 

Comes from the ADRENAL CORTEX

31

___ makes the collecting duct permeable to ___?If theres none of it, what's the result?

  • ADH makes the collecting duct permeable to water.
  • No ADH= collecting duct impermeable to water

32

  • Since the collecting duct passes through the highly concentrated ___,
    • as soon as membrane becomes permeable to water (due to what hormone?)

what happens?

  • CD passes through highly [ ]ed MEDULLA

as soon as ADH reaches CD:

  • theres a large flow of water OUT of the filtrate
    • results in CONCENTRATING of the urine (increased water retention)

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33

Net effect of ADH=? 2 things

water retention and increase BP

34

Primary function of the Respiratory system is? where does this occur and how does air get there?

  • GAS EXCHANGE!
  • occurs in Alveoli
  • inhalation & exhalation deliver air to alveoli

35

O2 diffues ___ its [ ] gradient into what?

DOWN its [ ] gradient into the blood

36

CO2 diffuses ___ its [ ] gradient ___ of what and into what?

DOWN its [ ] gradient, OUT of blood and back into lungs

37

Respiratory system: Path of air

  • Mouth
  • Nose
  • pharynx
  • larynx
  • trachea
  • bronchi
  • bronchiloes
  • alveoli

38

Diaphragm: remember 2 things

  1. it moves DOWN when it is flexed and UP when relaxed
  2. it moves DOWN during inhalation and UP during exhalation

39

Hemoglobin (Hb) is made up of what? What makes up that thing?

  • made of 4 protein chains
    • (2 alpha & 2 ß subunits)
  • each alpha and ß protein has a Fe-containing "heme" group at its center
  • Each heme can hold ONE O2 molecul
    • THUS, 100% saturation of Hb molecule can hold 8 oxygen atoms

40

100% saturated Hb can hold (#) ___ molecules

8 oxygen molecules

41

Equation for how CO2 is carried in the blood:

CO2+H2O⇒HCO3- + H+

42

The function of the cardiovascular system is...? (2)

  • Deliver O2 & nutrients to the cells & tissues
  • pick up CO2 & waste products and deliver them to lungs & kidneys

43

Tricuspid valve leads to? Bicuspid valve leads to? (Travel Bolivia!)

  • Tricuspid leads to Right Ventricle (Pulmonary Valve)
  • Bicuspid leads to Left Ventricle (Aortic Valve)

44

Cardiovascular System: Systemic Circulation (hint: there's a path!)

  • blood flows from LEFT ventricle,
  • through arteries,
  • arterioles,
  • capillaries,
  • venules,
  • veins,
  • vena cava, and
  • back to RIGHT atrium

45

Arteries vs Veins: Which one leaves, which returns to the heart?

  • Arteries leave (away from heart)
  • veins return (towards heart)

46

Sympathetic nervous activity ___es HR & BP

increases

47

Parasympathetic nervous activity ___es HR & BP

decreases

48

Blood Vessels: Pathway

  • Arteries
  • Arterioles
  • Capillaries
  • Venules
  • Veins

49

Define arteries

  • muscular, THICK-walled vessels that PUSH blood via rhythmic contraction

50

define veins

  • THIN walled vessels with little to no musculature that rely on a VALVE system to move blood back to heart

51

On arterial side of capillary bed, HYDROSTATIC ("water"+non+moving") PRESSURE is at its (max/min?)

  • At the same time, ___ of blood is _______ than than of interstitial fluid, creating what?

at its MAX!

  • osmolarity of blood is GREATER than that of interstitial fluid
    • creates an osmotic pressure

that DRIVES FLUID INTO THE CAPILLARY

52

Blood is what kind of tissue?

connective

53

What is the function of blood?

  • -transport nutrients, gases, waste products & hormones to and from cells
  • regulate the extracellular environment
  • protect body from foreign bodies (ie antigens)

54

What is blood made of? 6 things

  1. WBC's ("leukocytes")
  2. RBS's ("erythrocytes")
  3. antibodies ("immunoglobulins")
  4. clotting factors (like fibrinogen)
  5. transport proteins (like albumin)
  6. platelets

55

Blood vessels: Q=AV explains inverse relationship b/t what?

velocity and cross-sectional area

56

Erythrocytes=?

-sacks of Hemoglobin, and not much else

57

What's an interesting fact about erythrocytes (RBCs)?

They start out with a nucleus & organelles, but the disappear as cell matures

58

Leukocytes: (2)

  • No hemoglobin
  • Normal cells with ALL their organelles involved in the immune system

59

  • Granulocytes are __,__, and__.
  • These cells live for...?
  • "Grandma NEB Doesnt live long" 

 

  • neutrophils
  • eosinophils
  • basophils

 

  • ​these cells live for hours to days

60

  • Agranulocytes (2 examples)
  • how long do these cells last for?

  • -monocytes (which become macrophages)
  • lymphocytes

 

  • ​live for months to years

61

  • Define platelets.
  • When are they sticky and not sticky?

  • Membrane bound drops of cytoplasm
    • are sticky when exposed to injured epithelium
  • are NOT sticky when exposed to healthy epithelium

62

What happens when platelets encounter injured epithelium?

  • They release chemicals that activate OTHER platelets & clotting factors

63

What are platelets derived from?

Megakaryocytes in the bone marrow

64

All blood cells develop from ___ ___ (aka "undifferentiated cells") in the bone marrow--a process called ___.

  • stem cells
  • hematopoesis

65

Four phenotypes of bloodwhat is universal acceptor? Universal donor?

  • A,B, AB, O
  • universal acceptor=AB
  • universal donor=O

66

Genetically, blood type is an example of what?

  • co-dominance
    • (both alleles expressed equally in heterozygote)

67

For blood types, "A" and "B" indicate what?

  • ANTIGENS that are present on that person's blood cell membranes
  • A=A only
  • B=B only
  • AB=Both A and B
  • O=NEITHER A nor B

68

What is the function of the lymphatic system? (3)

  • -gather excess interstitial fluid & return it to the blood
  • remove from interstitial fluid proteins & other molecules TOO BIG to be taken up by capillaries
  • monitor blood & lymph for infections

69

Lymph nodes are filled with ___, which do what?

  • filled with lymphocytes
    • which monitor the blood for foreign antigens & fight infections

70

What do Lymph vessels look like? How do they work to move things around?

  • have one-way VALVES used to move the lymph
  • Single cells overlap slightly,
    • creating a trap door that lets things IN, but not OUT

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71

The ENTIRE lymph system drains into what 2 main vessels?

  • What do both of these vessels do?

  1. RIGHT LYMPHATIC 
  2. THORACIC DUCT 

 

  • ​Both dump back into BLOOD STREAM
    • by merging w/ large veins in lower portion of the neck area

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72

What 5 things comprise the "NERVOUS SYSTEM?

 

  1. Brain (CNS)
  2. Spinal cord (CNS)
  3. PERIPHERAL nerves (aka "PNS")
  4. Nerve SUPPORT cells
    • astrocytes
    • schwann cells
    • ependymal cells
  5. SENSORY organs
    • eyes
    • ears 

73

What is a "neuron?"

a specialized cell that can carry an electrochemical signal (called an "action potential")

74

Dendrites are...

  • finger-like projections from the cell body
    • receive signal information from an upstream neuron, with which it forms a SYNAPSE

75

How do dendrites receive signal information from upstream neurons?

  • Signal binds to a neurotransmitter on the post-synaptic membrane (aka the dendrite portion of the membrane)

76

Nervous system:

  • describe the neuron cell

aka the "STOMA"

is the main part of the neuron where the nucleus is located

77

Neuron:

  • describe the AXON HILLOCK
    • what does it have a high [ ] of?
    • What effect does this have on the region?

  • Area where the axon joins the cell body
  • has a very high [ ] of VGNa+ channels, which make it:
    • 1) sensitive to action potentials
    • 2) capable of regenerating a strong AP for transmission down the axon

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78

Neuron:

  • Describe the TERMINAL BUTTON
    • aka the AXON TERMINAL

is a branch at the end of the axon that synapses with:

  • the dendrite of the next neuron down the line, OR
  • the effector

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79

Neuron:describe the axon

is the long, narrow, tube-like stretch b/t the cell body and the terminal button

80

Neuron:

  • Describe Schwann cells
  • What do they have high levels of?
  • What do they wrap themselves around?
    • What's it called once it's done wrapping?

are along the axon

are specialized neural SUPPORT cells.

  • have high levels of FAT
  • wrap themselves around the axon multiple times
  • wrapping creates a "myelin sheath," which insulates the axon

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81

Neuron:what are the nodes of ranvier?what significance do they have?

  • small gaps b/t schwann cells
  • signals are able to "jump" from one node to another, without progressing along the entire length of the axon
    • this dramatically increases transmission SPEED!

82

Creation & Propagation of an AP:

  • What is an ACTION POTENTIAL? 
  • What happens (in general) once it is made?

a dramatic ∆ in resting elec. potential across membrane of a nerve cell

  • once made, it will move along cell membrane to neighboring portions of the neurons
    • as it does, the areas where AP originated gradually return to resting potential (-70mV)

83

Creation & Propagation of an AP: Define & quantify "resting potential"

  • is the voltage across the membrane when an AP is NOT present
  • resting potential= -70mV

84

Creation & Propagation of an AP: What does a Na+/K+ pump do?

(is an ATP pump) that actively transports 3 Na+ ions OUT of the cell & 2 K+ ions IN

85

What is the net effect of the Na+ /K+ pump during propagation of an AP?

since there's more Na+ sent OUT of the cell than K+ ions brought in, there is a more (+) charge outside of the cell, and a progressively more (-) charge inside

86

Creation & Propagation of an AP: describe voltage-gated Na+ channelswhat happens when its open?

  • integral proteins that OPEN UP in response to a ∆ in resting potential across the membrane
  • when open, Na+ flows rapidly back INTO the cell

87

Creation & Propagation of an AP: describe depolarization. what causes it?

  • opening of VGNa+ channels causes a sudden spike in membrane potential
    • usually from -70mV to ~+40mV

88

Creation & Propagation of an AP:

  • Define THRESHOLD POTENTIAL
    • Value= __mV
    • What happens if this value is exceeded?
    • What about if that value isn't quite reached?

is the MINIMUM STIMULUS NEEDED

 to INITIATE an AP

  • usually +55mV

If stimulus EXCEEDS 55mV:

  • AP follows.

If stimulus FAILS TO REACH +55mV:

  • mem pot. returns to -70mV (Resting potential)

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89

Creation & Propagation of an AP:

  • What are VG K+ channels?
    • What's a key difference b/t these and VGNa+ channels?
    • What happens as a result of this difference?

integral proteins that respond to

a ∆ in membrane potential

Differ from VGNa+ channels because:

  • have a MUCH higher threshold for responding than do VGNa+ channels
    • b/c this is the case, VGK+ channels will only react following a VERY LARGE ∆ in membrane potential that is a result of depolarization

This is what causes dip to ~90mV when repolarizing, because VGK+ channels are SLOWER to respond

90

At around MAX depolarization of an AP, what happens with regards to ion channels?

  • Na+ channels begin to close
  • K+ channels begin to open

91

Creation & Propagation of an AP:

  • Describe Repolarization
    • What happens as a result of it?
    • Quantify "repolarization"

  • Because there's more K+ ions inside the cell (due to Na+ K+ pump), opening of K+ channels cause K+ ions to flow OUT of the cell

 

this causes sudden DECREASE in membrane potential, from +40mV to -70mV

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92

Creation & Propagation of an AP:

  • Describe Hyperpolarization
    • ​Quantify this stage

  • because K+ channels are SLOW TO CLOSE as membrane potential approaches -70mV:

 

 membrane potential actually dips to -90mV before going back up to -70mV

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93

Creation & Propagation of an AP:

  • Describe the ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY PERIOD
    • When does it occur?
    • Why does it occur at this time?

NO action potential can be created,

no MATTER how much stimulus!

  • Occurs during progression of AP
    • which involves depolarization of membrane
  • 2nd stimulus can't be initiated until membrane gets repolarized

 

(no sexy time right after blowing your load--no matter HOW much the "stimulus")

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94

Creation & Propagation of an AP:

  • Describe RELATIVE REFRACTORY PERIOD
    • what's the NAME of the state the membrane is in DURING the Relative Refractory Period?
    • Why does the RRP need the thing that it needs? 

here, another AP CAN be stimulated--

but stimulus needs to be SUPER HIGH!

State of membrane during this period:

  • time frame when membrane is hyperpolarized

Needs a larger stimulus

b/c its a greater jump from -90 ⇒+55

than from -70 ⇒ +55

(30 minutes after sexy time, you COULD have sex again, if the "stimulus" were sufficient)

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95

What are the 2 types of synapse?

electrical and chemical

96

What is, by FAR, the slowest part of signal transduction?

Transmission across the synapse

97

Describe "ELECTRICAL Synapses"

Where are the only 5 places they happen?

are GAP JUNCTIONS b/t cells that

allow electrical signals to pass very quickly

from cell to cell

  • only happen in:
    1. retina
    2. smooth muscle
    3. cardiac muscle
    4. Brain (CNS)
    5. Spinal Cord (CNS)

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98

What's the "traditional" kind of synapse that we all think about?

Chemical synapses

99

Describe chemical synapses

  • are the small gaps b/t the terminal button and:
    • dendrite of a subsequent neuron
    • membrane or a muscle or other target (the "effector")

100

  • Describe (in general) how a signal is transmitted from:
    • the terminal button
    • across the synaptic cleft, and
    • to the next neuron in line (or to the effector , whichever)

AP arrives at post-synaptic cleft,

  • triggers voltage gated Ca2+ channels to OPEN

calcium flows into the terminal button

presence of Ca2+ initiates a cascade!

neurotransmitter bundles FUSE with presynaptic membrane

  • then dump their contents into the synaptic cleft
    • these neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across the gap, and
  • BIND to protein receptors on post-synaptic membrane
    • binding of protein and neurotransmitter molecules opens Na+ channels

Na+ flows INTO cell

  • if enough Na+ gets in, voltage will reach threshold
    • and AP will be generated! 

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101

Synapses:How do you stop signal transduction?

specialized enzymes in synaptic cleft must BREAK DOWN the neurotransmitter to interrupt its action

102

  • the POST-synaptic membrane will be CONTINUOUSLY STIMULATED as long as.....?

as long as:

 neurotransmitter is present

103

What is the most common enzyme that breaks down neurotransmitters?

Acetylcholinesterase (ACh)

104

  • what is an acetylcholinesterase (ACh) "agonist"? How about an "antagonist?"
    • What do each do wrt stimulation of neurons

Agonist=ACTIVATES ACh

  • leads to break down of neurotransmitters
    • decreased stimulation of neurons

Antagonist= INHIBITS ACh

  • increased stimulation of neurons

 

"an AGonist AGtivates"

105

What do Neural SUPPORT CELLS do?

  • Are they neurons?
  • give 3 examples

they are an example of ___ tissue!

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they ARENT neurons

but rather cells in the nervous system that provide SUPPORT to neurons

  • Ex:
    • Schwann cells
      • (oligodendrocytes, aka "GLIAL CELLS" in CNS)
    • Ependymal cells
      • (cells lining the cerebrospinal fluid cavities),
    • Astrocytes

      • (Structural support cell

are an example of NERVOUS tissue!

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106

Name the 3 neuron functions 

HINT: _____ neurons, _____ neurons, & _____ neurons

  1. INTERneurons,
  2. Motor (efferent) neurons,
  3. Sensory (afferent) neurons

"S.A.M.E"

107

Describe SENSORY (AFFERENT) neurons

  • What are they activated by?
  • Sensory neurons send ______s to other elements of the _____ _____, 
    • ​Ultimately conveying SENSORY INFORMATION to the _____ or the _____ _____

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  • are nerve cells that transmit sensory information (sight, sound, feeling, etc.)
  • They are activated by sensory input
  • send projections to other elements of the nervous system
  • ultimately conveying sensory information to the brain or spinal cord.

108

describe motor (efferent) neurons

carry signals to a muscle or gland, in response to a stimulus

109

describe interneurons (2 functions and example/s)

  • CONNECT motor (efferent) and sensory (afferent) neurons
  • transfer and process signals
  • EX: the brain and 90% of all other neurons are interneurons

110

The Nervous System is divided into what 2 categories?

Central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS)

111

The CNS includes?

  1. brain
  2. spinal chord

    INTERNEURONS ONLY!!!!!

112

The PNS is divided into what 2 subcategories?

somatic & autonomic

113

PNS: Somatic nervous system -describe (3)

  • is voluntary
  • innervates skeletal muscle
  • has sensory & motor subdivisions

114

PNS: Autonomic nervous system-describe

  • INvoluntary
  • innervates:
    • cardiac muscle
    • smooth muscle
    • glands
  • Like somatic, it has sensory & motor subdivisions

115

Parasympathetic NS:-describe-Where are cells located? -What neurotransmitters does it use, and where?

  • "Rest & digest"
  • cell bodies located very close (or inside!) effector
  • Neurotransmitters:
    • ACh ONLY
      • at ganglia & effector

116

Sympathetic NS-describe-where are the cells located? -What kind of neurotransmitters does it use, and where?

  • "Fight or flight"
  • Cell bodies located FAR from effectors
  • Neurotransmitters:
    • uses Norepinephrine mostly (ACh too)
      • at ganglia & effector

117

What does the Endocrine System include?

"endocrine glands," and the fluids & ducts into which they are released

118

EXOcrine glands release what? into where?

  • release enzymes or other liquids into external environment
  • Ex:
    • like digestive tract, nostrils, & butt-holes

119

ENDOcrine glands release what? into what?

release hormones into the internal fluids of the body (blood or lymph)

120

Name the 3 kinds of Endocrine hormones

  1. peptides
  2. steroids
  3. tyrosines

121

Mnemonic for anterior pituitary hormones: FLAT PG (flat pig)

  • FSH
  • LH
  • ACTH
  • TSH
  • Prolactin
  • GH

122

Which hormones come from:Posterior pituitary

  1. ADH
  2. Oxytocin

123

Which hormone(s) come from:Parathyroid

PTH (parathyroid hormone)

124

Which hormone(s) come from:Pancreas

  1. Glucagon
  2. Insulin

125

Which PEPTIDE hormone(s) come from:Thyroid

Calcitonin

126

Which hormone(s) come from:Embryo/Placenta

hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)

127

Which hormone(s) come from:Adrenal cortex

  1. cortisol
  2. aldosterone

128

Which hormone(s) come from:Gonads

  1. estrogen
  2. progesterone
  3. testosterone

129

Which TYROSINE hormone(s) come from:Thyroid

both of which are?

  1. T3
  2. T4

    both are lipid-soluble

130

Which hormone(s) come from:adrenal medullaboth of which are?

  1. epinephrine
  2. norepinephrine

    both are water soluble

131

Describe what happens when a hormone is transported to an effector

  • lipid-soluble hormones
    • require a protein carrier or a micelle/vesicle
    • peptides are water soluble
      • ...so they dissolve in bloodstream

132

Describe what happens when a hormone gets to its target effector(lipid-soluble vs water soluble)

  • lipid soluble act exclusively by binding on a receptor IN THE NUCLEUS & affecting transcription
  • peptide hormones act on a number of different cell locations
    • can't go straight to nucleus

133

  • Describe membrane permeability for:
    • lipid-soluble
    • water-soluble hormones

      once they get to their target effector

  • lipid soluble
    • doesnt require a cell membrane receptor--
      • goes right thru the cell membrane
    • They DO still require a receptor when they act INSIDE the cell
  • Peptide hormones are hydrophilic
    • ...so they need a cell membrane receptor

134

Briefly describe what happens in a 2nd messenger system. Usually occurs via...?

  • usually occurs via a cascade.
  • one hormone activates another hormone, enzyme, or other signaling molecule
  • process repeats, with SIZE of rxn and # of molecules increasing with each step

135

Hormones always act...?

..to return to homeostatic, or "normal" conditions

136

Why is the thyroid a "special gland?"

because it secretes both a tyrosine derivative AND a peptide hormone

137

Anterior & posterior pituitary glands are both REGULATED by hormones that come from where?

Hypothalamus

138

Remember...all steroids are ___ derivatives

CHO(cholesterol)

139

ACTH

stimulates adrenal cortex to release stress hormones called "glucocorticoids"

140

LH

  • surge in LH causes:
    • ovulation
    • stimulates secretion of sex hormones:
      • estrogen
      • testosterone

141

FSH

  • stimulates :
    • growth of follicle during menstrual cycle
    • production of sperm

142

TSH

stimulates release of T3/T4 from thyroid

143

hGH

stimulates growth throughout body

144

Prolactin

stimulates milk production in breasts

145

ADH

  • causes collecting duct of kidney to become highly permeable to water
    • leads to concentrating of the urine

146

Oxytocin

  • stimulates:
    • contractions during childbirth
    • milk secretion during nursing

147

Parathyroid hormone

  • increases blood calcium by:
    • stimulating proliferation of osteoclasts
    • uptake of Ca2+ in gut
    • reabsorption of Ca2+ in kidneys

148

Insulin

  • stimulates uptake and storage of glucose from blood

149

Glucagon

  • stimulates:
    • gluconeogenesis
    • release of glucose into the blood

150

Calcitonin

decreases blood calcium by inhibiting osteoclasts

151

hCG

prevents degeneration of corpeus luteum, maintaining pregnancy

152

Aldosterone

  • increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion at distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct
    • leads to net increase of salts in plasma
    •  increasing osmotic potential
    • And, subsequently increases blood pressure

153

Cortisol

  • stress hormone
  • increases gluconeogenesis in liver
    • and thus increases blood glucose levels
  • stimulates fat breakdown

154

Testosterone

  • stimulates:
    • development of secondary sex characteristics
    • closing of epiphyseal plates

155

Estrogen

  • stimulates:
    • female sex organs
  • causes:
    • LH surge in menstruation

156

Progesterone

stimulates growth and maintenance of uterus during pregnancy

157

T3/T4

increases basal metabolic rate, effecting metabolism

158

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

causes response almost identical to sympathetic nervous system response

159

4 special things to remember about neurons:

  1. They are stuck in G0 phase (cant divide)
  2. Depend ENTIRELY on glucose for energy
  3. DONT require insulin for glucose uptake
  4. Have very low glycogen stores & NO oxygen storage capacity
    • thus, neurons require high blood flow!

160

Immune system (ie T- cells) of blood for a blood recipient will attack...?

  • any antigen that is "foreign" to it
  • If person is type B, their T cells will attack AB because A is foreign

161

What do stess hormones, like _____s, do?

  • like glucocorticoids (which ACTH stimulates)
  • increase glugoneogenesis and fat metabolism

162

diastolic pressure

  • occurs near the beginning of the cardiac cycle.
  • It is the minimum pressure in the arteries when the pumping chambers of the heart — ventricles — fill with blood.

163

systolic pressure

  • Near the end of the cardiac cycle
  • systolic pressure, or peak pressure, occurs when the ventricles contract.

164

What does Gram negative bacteria look like? What physical proterties does it have? 

  • Stains pink
  • has a relatively thin cell wall
  • does not form endosomes
  • contain 2 cell membranes
    • one outside the cell
    • one inside the cell

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165

What does gram positive bacteria look like? What physical proterties does it have?

  • stains purple
  • very thick cell wall
  • DOES form endosomes
  • has a single cell membrane

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166

What is the main function of the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)?

  • What does it relay communication between?

  • The main function of the PNS is TO CONNECT:
    • the central nervous system (CNS)
    • to the limbs and organs

 

...essentially serving as a communication relay going back and forth between the brain and the extremities

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167

oligodendrocytes, aka?

What part of the NS are they found in?

aka GLIAL CELLS

Found in the CNS

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168

 Both ENDOCRINE AND NERVOUS responses pair with efferent/afferent sensory information?

Which is a faster response: Endocrine or Nervous?

 Both endocrine and nervous responses pair with AFFERENT sensory information

 

NERVOUS reponses are faster

than endocrine responses

169

NEURONS DO NOT require _____ to take up _____ as do nearly all other cells 

Neurons DO NOT require INSULIN to take up GLUCOSE

as do nearly all other cells 

170

 The SYMPATHETIC nervous system ______s the pupil and the PARASYMPATHETIC _______s it

 SYMPATHETIC

  •  dilates the pupil 

PARASYMPATHETIC

  • constricts it