Psychology 3 Flashcards Preview

ALTIUS > Psychology 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Psychology 3 Deck (142):
1

Behavioral Genetics

  • Genes, Temperament, and Heredity
    • Define "Temperament"
      • When is one's temperament established?
      • How does it change throughout one's life span?

TEMPERAMENT 

  • Describes one’s general emotional disposition

  • Temperament has been shown to be established at birth and relatively persistent across the life span

1

Behavioral Genetics

  • Nature vs. Nurture: “The Grand Debate,” Heredity vs. Environment 

Interdependence of Genes & Environment

  • Scenario #3: Same Genes, Different Environment

 Environment⇒Disease OR No Disease

  • In many cases, a gene will remain phenotypically irrelevant in the absence of disease-inducing environmental conditions
    • Genetic mutations that result in loss of enzymatic function are prime examples
      •  e.g., PKU, galactosemia
        • A child born with galactosemia lacks one or more enzymes specific to the metabolism of galactose
        • The results can be fatal
        • However, if the child is kept on a low-galactose diet (environmental change), the disease has essentially no harmful effect

1

Behavioral Genetics

  • Nature vs. Nurture Study Methods 

    • A less-frequent Twin Study design type is to compare the frequency of a trait among DZ (fraternal; non-identical) twins raised together to the frequency of that same trait among DZ twins raised apart

    • Why is this design less likely to be employed?

    • What are its potential limitations?

The population of DZ twins raised apart is considerably smaller

  • ​∴ access to this limited population can be challenging

This particular design can also be problematic because:

  • DZ twins are no more genetically similar than any non-twin siblings
  • There would be a host of potential confounding variables
    • ...that might have contributed to the NEED to rear the twins separately
      • i.e. overall lack of consistency all-around

1

Behavioral Genetics

Genetically-based Behavior Variation in Natural Populations

  •  Do the following hypothetical findings, if true, most support a genetic influence on behavior (nature), or an environmental influence on behavior (nurture)? Why?

  1. Bipolar Disorder is more likely among individuals who have a sibling who has been diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder

  2. Adopted children who exhibit aggressive behavior are more likely to have a biological parent who also exhibits aggressive behaviors than they are to have an adoptive parent who exhibits aggressive behaviors

  3. The concordance rate for alcoholism among MZ twins raised together is higher than the concordance rate for MZ twins raised apart

  4. MZ twins raised together have more similar IQs than do DZ twins raised together

  5. Strain X of MZ twin rats had a hereditary disposition toward obesity, while Strain Y did not

    • Both strains were divided into groups and fed either a below-average amount of food, or an above-average amount of food

    • The amount of food fed to the rats was a effective predictor of life span than was Strain X or Y

  1. Arguments could be made for both nature and nurture
    • Given the genetic relatedness among siblings, one could argue that there is a strong genetic component involved in bipolar disorder
    • However, given that most siblings are raised in the same family environments, there could be key shared experiences in that context that increase the likelihood of being diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
  2. This would support a nature argument
    • If aggression levels are more similar to biological relatives compared to adopted relatives, then this would suggest a genetic underpinning.
  3. This would support a nurture argument
    • MZ twins are genetically identical
      • therefore, one would argue that differences in alcoholism could be attributed to different environmental contexts in which these individuals are raised
  4. This would support a nature argument
    • Given that both sets of twins are raised in similar environments, one would assume that the higher concordance of IQs among MZ twins would be attributable to genetics.
  5. This would support a nurture argument
    • Amount of food available was more predictive than genetic predisposition to obesity

2

Behavioral Genetics

  • Nature vs. Nurture: “The Grand Debate,” Heredity vs. Environment 
    • For every ___al, ____al, or ___al characteristic or behavior, scientists ask WHAT question?
    • What almost always the answer? 

  • For every psychological, sociological, or biological characteristic or behavior, scientists have asked the question

“Is this primarily the result of genes (nature), or the influence of the environment (nurture)?”

  • The answer is most often (but not always)

BOTH!

2

Behavioral Genetics

  • Nature vs. Nurture: “The Grand Debate,” Heredity vs. Environment 

Interdependence of Genes & Environment

  • Scenario #2:  Different Genes, Same Environment

Genes⇒Environment

  • Suppose you have a genetic predisposition toward high IQ and your adopted brother has a predisposition toward low IQ
  • You are raised in the same home and loved equally
  • One would assume environment will be controlled, or the same, for both of you
    • However, as your genes are expressed, they impact your mother
    • When she smiles at you, you smile back
    • You talk earlier than your brother and are more interactive

Almost unavoidably, your mother will begin treating YOU differently

  • While you do have the genes for higher IQ, those genes are not acting ALONGSIDE the environment
    • ...they are actually CHANGING the environment!
  • The same is true of your adopted brother
  • He gets less attention and praise because he interacts less
  • In this case, the influence of genes on environment makes the disparity between you and your brother greater than one would expect based on the genetic differences

2

Behavioral Genetics

  • EXPERIENCE-BASED (Environmental) INFLUENCES ON BEHAVIOR:
    • The influence of experience on behavior would include everything that is NOT ______
      • Give some examples

The influence of experience on behavior would include everything that is NOT GENETIC

  • Learning
  • Conditioning
  • Socializing
  • One’s environment, and
  • any other experience you encounter in life

​...all impact your behavior

2

Behavioral Genetics

  • Regulatory Genes and Behavior
    • Define & Describe "Regulatory Genes"

Regulatory genes

are genes that code for a substance that regulates the transcription of ANOTHER GENE 

  • Includes:
    • up or down regulation
    • promotion
    • inhibition

2

Behavioral Genetics

  • Genetically-based Behavior Variation in Natural Populations
    • ...provide evidence for the influence of genetics on behavior

Describe the following 3 observations and how they show the influence of genetics on behavior

  1. Species-Specific Behaviors
  2. Animal Breeding
  3. Familial Concordance

  1. Species-Specific Behaviors
    • Behavior observed only among members of the same species
  2. Animal Breeding
    • Animals can be bred to exhibit target behaviors, such as:
      • Aggression being genetically-selected for in rodeo bulls
      • Hunting skills being genetically-selected for in certain dog breeds
  3. Familial Concordance
    • Behaviors shown to run in families

OR

  • be more frequent among children of parents with that behavioral trait

3

Behavioral Genetics

  • Behavior and Natural Selection: 

Describe:

  • Innate Behavior
  • Learned Behavior
  • Adaptive Value
    • Traits with high adaptive value are more likely to...?
      • Why?
  • What is "Adaptive Evolution," and what 2 things can it occur with? 

Innate Behavior

  • Behavior thought to be predominantly genetic and present regardless of environmental influences

Learned Behavior

  • Behaviors thought to be predominantly environmental (i.e., learned via experience), and independent of heredity

Adaptive Value

  • The degree to which a behavior INCREASES EVOLUTIONARY FITNESS
    • Traits with high adaptive value are more likely to be represented in future generations
      • Because natural selection favors the most fit individuals and behaviors, these behaviors will eventually result in a change in the gene pool
        • an increase in the more adaptive trait

This is adaptive evolution and it can occur with:

  • both physical traits
    • e.g., Darwin’s Finches and beak structure
  • ...and behavioral traits
    • e.g., Different dog breeds bred for different behaviors

4

Behavioral Genetics

Nature vs. Nurture Study Methods 

  • Describe:
    • FAMILY studies
    • ADOPTION studies

 

Family Studies

  • Compare frequency of behavior/condition/trait among related individuals to the frequency of that same measure among non-relatives

Adoption Studies

  • Compare the behaviors/conditions/traits of an adopted child to those of its adoptive parents;
  • Simultaneously compare that same child, on those same measures, to its biological parents.

4

Behavioral Genetics

  • Nature vs. Nurture Study Methods 
    • For the following twin study experimental design types, identify the dependent variable, independent variable, any obvious study limitations, and—if present—the control:
      • Family Studies
      • Adoption Studies
      • Twin Study
        • MZ vs. DZ, both raised together
      • Twin Study
        • MZ and MZ, raised together vs. apart

Family Studies

Dependent variable:

  • rates of neurodegenerative disease

"Independent" variable:

  • degree of relatedness
    • this is not a true independent variable
      • because it cannot be actively manipulated
        • ∴ this research is correlational in nature (and has all the inherent problems of correlational research)

This is usually referred to as a quasi-independent variable

Think "Quasimodo"= DEFORMED

  • Family studies are limited --
    • because families in which the disease occurs will be selectively recruited
      • which makes sample representativeness problematic
      • "Sampling Bias"

Adoption Studies

  • Dependent variable:
    • IQ
  • Quasi-independent variable:
    • adopted vs. biological
  • These types of studies are difficult to do because:
    • there is a relatively small population to select from
    • Difficulty in attaining information about biological relatives of adopted individuals

Twin Study 

MZ vs. DZ, both raised together

  • Dependent variable:
    • aggression level
  • Quasi-independent variable:
    • degree of relatedness (MZ vs. DZ twin)
  • Potential limitations lie again in generalizability

Twin Study

MZ and MZ, raised together vs. apart

  • Dependent variable:
    • obesity
  • Quasi-independent variable:
    • reared together or apart
  • These studies are difficult because access to these populations is very limited

5

Behavioral Genetics

  • Nature vs. Nurture: “The Grand Debate,” Heredity vs. Environment 
    • Describe "Interdependence"

INTERDEPENDENCE

  • The influence of genes and environment on biology and behavior goes well beyond the simple fact that BOTH factors influence most traits
    • The two influences are often interdependent—literally changing each other

5

Behavioral Genetics

  • Nature vs. Nurture: “The Grand Debate,” Heredity vs. Environment 

Interdependence of Genes & Environment

  • Scenario #1: Same Genes, Different Environment

Environment⇒Gene Expression

  • Suppose your genes predispose you to a high IQ, but your environment includes a mother who is biased against people who “think they are smart.”
    • Your mother’s reinforcement can actually CHANGE the way your genes are expressed
  • Suppose your identical twin is adopted by a mother with a PhD who constantly encourages learning
    • YOUR brain may perform neuronal pruning on underused synapses that are underused because your mom discourages learning
    • Your twin brother has those neuronal synapses strengthened because he uses them
      • under the influence of an encouraging mother
    • One would expect the same “IQ genes” to produce the same neurological structures and capacity, but that is NOT the case
      • because environment altered gene expression

5

Behavioral Genetics

Nature vs. Nurture: “The Grand Debate,” Heredity vs. Environment 

  • Interdependence of Genes & Environment

Scenario #4: Same Genes, Different Environment

Environment⇒Covalent Modification of the DNA⇒Dramatically Different Physiology

  • Evidence exists for cases where the gene (i.e., DNA structure) itself is covalently altered by the environment
    • One study showed that increased licking behavior by a mother rat resulted in methylation of a segment of DNA (preventing transcription) that codes for a regulatory protein which upregulates transcription of a membrane receptor
    • This direct change in physiology persisted into adulthood
    • Amazingly, the methylation occurred within one week and could be reversed if the mother’s licking behavior was reversed!

5

Behavioral Genetics

Nature vs. Nurture Study Methods 

  • Describe Twin Studies
    • Also, differentiate b/t the 2 types:
      • Dizygotic Twins ("DZ") aka?
      • Monozygotic Twins ("MZ") aka?

Twin Studies

  • Compare concordance rates between monozygotic (MZ) twins raised in the same family to dizygotic (DZ) twins raised in the bfamily

OR

  • Compare concordance rates for monozygotic twins raised in the same family to those raised apart

Monozygotic Twins  

a.k.a., "Identical Twins" 

  • Genetic influence is CONTROLLED
  • Studies examine twins raised in different homes--
    • so that environmental influence is VARIABLE

Dizygotic Twins 

a.k.a., "Fraternal Twins" or NON-identical

  • Genetic influence is VARIABLE
  • Studies examine twins in the same home--
    • so that environmental influence is CONTROLLED 

5

Behavioral Genetics

  • Nature vs. Nurture Study Methods 
    • Suppose you are asked to design a study to investigate the degree to which Behavior X is HERITABLE
      • also--what does "heritability" refer to?
    • Rank the studies outlined above (Family, Adoption, Twin) according to their increasing ability to produce accurate results WITHOUT confounding variables
    • Discuss the individual limitations of each study for this purpose

"Heritability" refers to the percentage (%) of trait variability that is attributable to GENES

Twin studies

  • involving DZ twins raised together compared to MZ twins raised together
    • would be one of the BEST TOOLS AVAILABLE to estimate a given trait’s heritability--
      • because it is generally assumed that the shared environments would be so similar as to be inconsequential to contributing to trait variability
        • less confounding variables

Family studies

  • Would be another way to get at this question
  • However, as one moves outside of one’s immediate family, larger variations would be expected
    • ...in terms of environmental factors

Adoption studies

  • Are also potential tools provided that:
    • information is available about the trait of interest from the biological parents
  • If the adopted child is more similar to biological parents than to the adopted parents
    • then one could argue that there was substantial heritability for that trait

6

Behavioral Genetics

  • Regulatory Genes and Behavior
    • Describe how the example below shows how Regulatory Genes influence behavior 

Same Genes, Different Environment

Environment ⇒Covalent Modification of the DNA⇒Dramatically Different Physiology

Evidence exists for cases where the gene (i.e., DNA structure) itself is covalently altered by the environment

One study showed that increased licking behavior by a mother rat resulted in methylation of a segment of DNA (preventing transcription) that codes for a regulatory protein which upregulates transcription of a membrane receptor

LICKING=A WAY RAT COPED WITH STRESS

This direct change in physiology persisted into adulthood

Amazingly, the methylation occurred within one week and could be reversed if the mother’s licking behavior was reversed

  • In this case, a certain gene influenced an individual’s ability to cope with stress
  • However, it wasn’t this “stress coping” gene that was regulated--
    • It was the regulator OF the “stress coping” gene that was “turned off”-- 
      • via methylation of the DNA sequence (gene) coding for the regulator

Under normal conditions, the regulator promotes transcription (and therefore translation) of a glucocorticoid membrane receptor

**By preventing the synthesis of the promoter**, the behavior of the mother effectively ALTERED the genetically-determined behavior of the child (i.e., the child’s ability to cope with stress).

7

The ENTIRE CNS=___+___

=BRAIN + SPINAL CORD

9

Personality

  • Other (aka Non-Freud or Jung) Personality Types:

Describe the most basic components of the personality theories of ALFRED ADLER 

  1. Creative Self
  2. Style of life
  3. Fictional Finalism
  4. Inferiority Complex 

 

 

Q image thumb

Alfred Adler  (​A Neo-Freudian)

  • Adler espoused a much more OPTIMISTIC view of human nature than did Freud

As such, Adler believed that all human behavior was guided through a process of self-improvement and success

  • and that each individual’s personality was forged through his/her choices
    • ...and was often motivated by feelings of inferiority that each of us experiences in some aspect of our lives
  • This is known as the concept of "Creative Self" 
    • ...​and it helps to forge a person’s "Style of Life",
      • or "unconscious patterns of behavior in dealing with all aspects of life"
  • Adler believed that Freud’s focus on childhood experiences and their role in establishing adult personality represented "Fictional finalism"
    • ...because this approach ignores the active role that individuals play in determining their own personalities
  • Individuals who fail to use their feelings of inferiority as motivation for self-improvement may experience an inferiority complex--
    • by which they feel entirely overwhelmed and powerless as a result of their shortcomings

10

Theories of Personality

  • Humanistic Personality Theories 

Psychoanalytic vs. Humanistic Perspectives on Personality 

  • Think of "Psychoanalytic" as:
  • Think of "Humanistic" as:

How do compare a person with their neuroses?

(aka mental illnesses)

THINK of Psychoanalytic as:

  • Patients are “sick”, repressed, or have other troubles in need of treatment

A person is DEFINED by their neuroses

THINK of Humanistic as:

  • How healthy individuals strive toward self-realization
  • Has a more HOLISTIC view

 A person is MORE than just the sum of their neuroses

10

Theories of Personality

  • Humanistic Personality Theories 

Describe Max Wertheimer's "Gestalt Therapy"

Q image thumb

MAX WERTHEIMER: Gestalt Therapy

  • A humanist approach to therapy emphasizing the treatment of the individual as a whole

Rather than reducing the person to a sum of their individual behaviors, drives, or neuroses

11

Theories of Personality

  • Humanistic Personality Theories 

Describe Kurt Lewin's "Field Theory"

Q image thumb

KURT LEWIN: Field Theory

  • Focuses on the state-of-mind of the patient as
    • the sum of interactions between:
      • their individual personality, and
      • the “total field” (environment)

11

Personality Theories

  • Humanistic Personality Theories 

Describe Carl Rogers' "Client-Centered Therapy" (CCT)

Q image thumb

CARL ROGERS: Client-Centered Therapy (CCT)

  • One of the most widely-used psychotherapeutic approaches
  • In CCT, therapists should NOT direct the therapy or offer solutions

THE CLIENT DIRECTS THE DISCUSSION 

  • Further, the therapist must always be:
    • empathetic,
    • genuine and
    • show unconditional positive regard for the client

...REGARDLESS of circumstance

  • Finally, Rogers emphasized calling the recipient a “client” rather than a “patient
    • to avoid the concept that they are “sick” and need help
      • --which he viewed as judgmental

12

Theories of Personality

  • Humanistic Personality Theories  

Describe George Kelly's "Personal Construct Theory"

Q image thumb

GEORGE KELLY: Personal Construct Theory

  • Personality is composed of the various mental constructs
    • ​--through which each person views reality

13

Theories of Personality

  • Describe (in general):

Humanistic Personality Theories 

  • What do they say Personality consist of? 
  • What is Fundamental  to "Humanism?"

Humanistic Personality Theories

  • Personality consists of the conscious feelings we have for ourselves
    • ...as we strive to reach our individual needs and goals (i.e., self-actualization)

Fundamental to humanism is the idea that people are inherently good

14

Personality

  • Other (aka Non-Freud or Jung) Personality Types:

Describe the most basic components of the personality theories of KAREN HORNEY

  1. Neurotic Needs
  2. Basic Anxiety
  3. Basic Hostility

Q image thumb

Karen Horney

  • was another Neo-Freudian who parted with Freud’s views on a number of counts
  • For one, Horney refused to accept that sexual and aggressive urges were the key factors in determining someone’s personality
  • She also rejected the emphasis that Freud and his follower’s placed on the male sex organ (she was a DICK HATER)
  • As such, she took a much more humanistic view of personality

One of Horney’s major contributions to psychology involved her theory of Neurosis

(Basic) HOSTILITY⇒ (Basic) ANXIETY⇒ NEUROSIS, and its accompanying "NEUTORIC NEEDS" (to cope w/ anxiety)

  • According to Horney, neurosis results from basic anxiety which results from troubles in personal relationships that stem from childhood
  • If a child perceives that they did not have their needs met by their parents, then they would experience basic hostility towards them
    • This hostility would serve as one source of the basic anxiety that they feel in other relationships
    • As people try to cope with this anxiety, they may fall into a rut in terms of their coping mechanisms of choice which could be construed as a series of neurotic needs
      • (e.g. the need for approval, the need for power).

15

Personality

  • Type A vs. Type B Personality Theory
    • Give 3 characteristics for Type A and Type B personalities

 

 

Q image thumb

Proposed by two cardiologists, Friedman & Rosenman, as a way to predict one’s likelihood of developing coronary artery disease

  • Strongly criticized because:
    • the subjects were all male
    • Early studies were funded by tobacco companies
      • ...who had a strong interest in the outcome

Type A Personality (later changed to Type A Behavior Pattern)

  1. Competitiveness
  2. Time Urgency
  3. Hostility

Type B Personality (later changed to Type B Behavior Pattern)

  1. More relaxed and reflective
  2. Lower anxiety levels
  3. Higher imagination/creativity

15

Theories of Personality

  • Describe (in general) Trait Personality Theories
    • How do these theories differ from Psychoanalytic or Humanistic perspectives?

TRAIT Personality Theories:

  • Personality= Σ of Traits
    • broad, relatively-stable characteristics or dispositions
  • These theories are focused on unique DIFFERENCES between individuals--
    • whereas Psychoanalytic or Humanistic perspectives focus more on commonalities among all people
      • e.g., common needs, common neuroses

16

Psychological Disorders

  • Anxiety Disorders
    • have a higher frequency among ___ than ____.

    • and are the ____ _____ psychological disorders in the US

Higher frequency among WOMEN than men

  • Are the MOST COMMON psychological disorders in the US

16

Psychological Disorders

  • Anxiety Disorders

Differentiate b/t: 

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
  • Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) 

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

THINK: ...and I'm overly paranoid Rob Lowe

  • A prolonged and exaggerated sense of worry that has few or no verifiable causes
  • May be accompanied by:
    • an exaggerated startle reflex
    • trouble sleeping
    • headaches
    • nausea
    • fatigue
    • excessive sweating, etc. 

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) (a.k.a., Social Phobia)

THINK: Reclusive Redditors 

  • An overwhelming feeling of anxiety and excessive self-consciousness in everyday social situations

  • It is characterized by:

    • a fear of being judged

    • feelings of inadequacy, inferiority, embarrassment, humiliation, and depression

  • May be accompanied by:
    • blushing
    • nausea
    • excessive sweating
    • trembling
    • difficulty speaking, etc. 

16

Psychological Disorders

  • Anxiety Disorders

Compare Specific Phobia with Agoraphobia

Specific Phobia

THINK: "OMG I'm afraid of spiders!!!!!"

  • An irrational and excessive fear of:
    • an object or situation
  • May be accompanied by:
    • dizziness
    • nausea
    • difficulty breathing
    • a sense of unreality
    • a fear of dying
  • In extreme cases, it can induce.....
    • FULL-SCALE ANXIETY ATTACK!!!!!

Agoraphobia

THINK: "I'm afraid of crowds"

  • A persistent fear of any place or circumstance
    • ​...from which escape might be difficult
  • Individuals are usually fearful of being:
    • outside of their homes
    • traveling in a car
    • in a crowd, or
    • in public spaces
  • May be accompanied by:
    • depressed mood
    • anxiousness
    • fearful behaviors, or
    • panic attacks

A image thumb
16

Psychological Disorders

  • PSYCHOLOGIAL DISORDERS REVIEW: 

Identify the psychological disorder that is most likely to be diagnosed given the following symptoms:

  1. Alternating periods of high energy/impulsive behavior and depression

  2. Hearing voices that urge the individual to hurt himself,

  3. Significant periods of memory loss for events that others claim the individual was present for but they also indicate that he was behaving oddly

  4. Persistent thoughts that harm would befall his parents if he failed to take a flight of stairs two stairs at a time

  5. Avoiding situations in which social interaction would occur because of an intense feeling of social inferiority

  6. An intense need to be the center of attention at all times

  7. Significant issues with maintaining balance and pronounced tremors

  1. Bipolar disorder
  2. Schizophrenia
  3. Dissociative identity disorder
  4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
  5. Avoidant personality disorder
  6. Histrionic personality disorder
  7. Parkinson’s disease

17

Psychological Disorders

  • Dissociative Disorders

Describe the basic diagnostic symptoms of:

  • Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
  • Dissociative Amnesia

...according to DSM-5 

The DSM-5 lists the following as diagnostic criteria for Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID):

THINK: Me, Myself, & Irene

  1. Disruption of identity with 2 or more DISTINCT personalities, as:
    1. Observed by others or
    2. As reported by the patient
  2. Recurrent periods of AMNESIA for both:
    • Everyday events and
    • Important personal experiences
  3. These disturbances fall outside of:
    • cultural/religious practices
    • imaginary play of children
  4. The disturbances have caused significant impairment in the individual’s:
    • occupational or social functioning
  5. The disturbance is not due to drug use or some other medical condition

A image thumb
17

Psychological Disorders

  • Personality Disorders
    • Describe (in general) characteristics of the disorders in Cluster A
    • What are the 3 disorders in Cluster A?

Cluster A

  • Notice that all disorders in this cluster have a very common general description pertaining to either DISRUPTIVE or DISTORTED patterns of thought, behavior, and functioning

 

  1. Paranoid Personality Disorder
  2. Schizotypal Personality Disorder
  3. Schizoid Personality Disorder

19

Psychological Disorders

  • Personality Disorders

Cluster B

  • Describe:
    • Histrionic Personality Disorder
    • Narcissistic Personality Disorder

What are they 1) Characterized by, and 2) Accompanied by?

Histrionic Personality Disorder

THINK: Robin Grigg's behavior in Taiwan 

  • Characterized by:
    • excessive but shallow emotions
    • attention-seeking
    • manipulative behavior
  • May be accompanied by:
    • fleeting moods, opinions or beliefs
    • excessive suggestibility
    • a desire for others to witness their emotional outbursts
    • exaggeration of symptoms
    • threats of suicide

...as a form of MANIPULATION

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

THINK: Kanye West

  • Characterized by:
    • an excessive sense of self- importance
    • an extreme preoccupation with oneself
    • and a lack of empathy for others
  • May be accompanied by:
    • A constant need for
      • attention
      • affirmation
      • praise
    • A belief that one is “special” and should ONLY associate with others of the same caliber
    • Fantasies about success and power
    • A sense of entitlement
    • Expectations of special treatment

EX: A man's mother died on a Thursday and on Saturday his wife had the annual picnic for her office.   She demanded that her husband and children go to the picnic in spite of their grief and act happy and not talk about Grandma dying in order to make a good impression on her coworkers (make HER look good. Doesnt give a crap about her family)

20

Psychological Disorders

  • Personality Disorders

Cluster C

  • Describe: 
    • Avoidant Personality Disorder
    • Dependent Personality Disorder

Avoidant Personality Disorder

THINK: Socially anxious Redditor

  • Characterized by:
    • extreme shyness
    • sensitivity to criticism and rejection
    • low self-esteem,
    • avoidance of social situations—
      • including school or work
  • Individuals may desire closeness with others, but have difficulty forming relationships outside of their immediate family

Dependent Personality Disorder

THINK: Kaila Bravo from high school 

  • Characterized by:
    • a chronic, pervasive pattern of dependent, submissive, and NEEDY behavior
  • Individuals may seek excessive:
    • approval
    • advice, or
    • encouragement
  • May include:
    • sensitivity to criticism or rejection
    • low self-esteem
    • low self-confidence
    • an inability to make decision without others
    • feelings of helplessness
    • extreme devastation when close relationships end—
      • with the need to IMMEDIATELY begin a new relationship

21

Psychological Disorders

  • Personality Disorders

Cluster C

  • Define Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) 
  • Differentiate between OCPD and OCD

Obsessive-Compulsive PERSONALITY Disorder (OCPD) 

  • Characterized by a chronic and significant preoccupation with perfection, control and order

  • May include rigid behaviors, resistance to change, inflexibility, stubbornness, and a sense of helplessness in uncontrollable circumstances 

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) are two distinct diagnoses

  • OCD involves obsessions that generate anxiety and compulsive behaviors that are engaged in an attempt to alleviate anxiety
    • These thoughts and behaviors are generally UNWELCOME
  • The experience of an individual with OCPD is quite different in that they tend to be preoccupied with rules, regulation, and organization
    • They tend to DEMAND PERFECTION in all of their endeavors and are quite inflexible in their patterns of thoughts and in the way that they approach new problems

Unlike someone diagnosed with OCD, the OCPD individual views their perspective as an EFFICIENT ("GOOD") way to deal with the challenges of life and are MUCH LESS LIKELY to seek professional help to address these issues

23

Psychological Disorders

  • Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders
    • Describe PTSD

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

  • A stressor-induced disorder developed after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event such as:
    • a natural disaster
    • violent crime, or
    • war
  • May include:
    • hyper-vigilance
    • reliving the event
    • anxiety
    • avoidance

24

Psychological Disorders

  • Understanding Psychological Disorders:
    • Name the 2 approaches to categorizing and understanding psychological disorders

  1. Biomedical Approach
  2. Biopsychosocial Approach

25

Psychological Disorders

  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
    • Describe the basic diagnostic symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder according to DSM-5
    • What is the difference between an obsession and a compulsion

In order to be diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder, an individual must exhibit obsessions AND/OR compulsions

  •  Obsessions
    • involve repeated occurrence of unwanted thoughts which generate significant anxiety such that the individual experiencing them will try to make these thoughts stop
  • Compulsions
    • are repeated patterns of behavior or thought that the individual engages in to make obsessions go away
    • The purpose of these ritualized patterns of behavior/thought is to reduce stress or avoid some feared situation

Aside from exhibiting obsessions and/or compulsions, these disturbances are:

  • Time consuming
    • i.e. at least an hour of each day is devoted to them
  • Significant impairment in the individual’s daily activities
  • These disturbances are not better explained by the use of some substance or some other medical condition
  • Finally, obsessions/compulsions cannot be only related to the symptoms of some other disorder

26

Psychological Disorders

  • Schizophrenia: 

Describe the basic diagnostic symptoms of Schizophrenia (according to DSM-5)

Q image thumb

In order to diagnose an individual with schizophrenia, the following criteria must be met:

A)

  • The individual must exhibit for at least one month, two (or more) characteristic symptoms which include:
    1. Delusions
    2. Hallucinations
    3. Disorganized speech
    4. Grossly abnormal psychomotor behavior
    5. Negative symptoms
      • Losing interest in everyday activities
      • Feeling out of touch with family & friends, etc.
  • At least one of those symptoms has to be an ACTIVE symptom
    • i.e. delusions, hallucinations, and/or disorganized speech

B)

  • The individual has experienced significant impairments in their ability to engage in day-to-day activities and in interpersonal relationships
    • ...as a function of the onset of symptoms

C)

  • Signs of the disturbance are present for at least 6 months
    • this includes the 1 month of ACTIVE symptoms
    • and may include periods of less pronounced symptoms that may be dominated by:
      • Negative symptoms or
      • Less severe Active symptoms 

D)

  • Alternative diagnoses (i.e. Schizoaffective and Mood Disorders) have been ruled out

E)

  • Symptoms are NOT better explained by substance use and/or some other medical condition

F)

  • Individuals with Autistic disorder (or another pervasive developmental disorder or problem with communication) must present:
    • prominent:
      • Delusions or
      • Hallucinations
    • ...for at least one month

...in order to be diagnosed with schizophrenia

27

Psychological Disorders

  • Depressive Disorders

Define: Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD)

  • What is it characterized by?
  • How does it relate to a MDE? 
  • How long must it persist to be diagnostic? 

Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD)

  • Characterized by Dysthymia
    • which is depressive symptoms that are not severe enough to qualify as a MDE, but persist most of the time
      • ...for at least two years

28

Psychological Disorders:

  • GENERAL DIAGNOSTIC RULE
    • To be diagnosed affirmatively, the symptoms of almost any disorder must cause what 2 things?

To be diagnosed affirmatively, the symptoms of almost any disorder must cause:

  1. Clinically significant distress, OR 
  2. Impairment in normal functioning
    • familial, social, occupational, etc.

28

Psychological Disorders:

  • Depressive Disorders
    • Define a Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
      • Describe the 2 types of MDDs:
        1. Major Depressive Episode (MDE)
        2. Seasonal Affective Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

  • Mood disorder with at least one Major Depressive Episode (MDE)

Major Depressive Episode (MDE)

  • Depressed mood or loss of interest in normally-enjoyable daily activities
    • interferes with normal functioning
    • lasts for at least two weeks
  • The MDE criteria are also an important part of diagnosing:
    • Bipolar Disorder

Seasonal Affect Disorder (SAD)

  • ​MDD that occurs only at a specific time of year (season)
    • Usually during the winter

28

Psychological Disorders

  • Bipolar Disorder: 

Provide a conceptual definition for the following terms as they relate to Bipolar Disorder:

  • Manic episode 
  • Bipolar I 
  • Hypomania
  • Bipolar II

MANIC EPISODES

  • are disturbances of mood that are used to diagnose bipolar disorder
  • Many individuals who are diagnosed with some sort of bipolar disorder often experience alternations between manic episodes and depressed episodes
    • However, depressed episodes are NOT
    • part of the diagnostic criteria

The severity of the manic episode will often dictate the specific diagnosis that is made:

  • For instance, individuals with full blown manic episodes are diagnosed as BIPOLAR I
  • However, if the individual experiences less intense mania, or HYPOMANIA, then they are more likely to be diagnosed as BIPOLAR II

29

Psychological Disorders

PSYCHOLOGIAL DISORDERS REVIEW: 

  • For each of the following symptoms, list ALL of the psychological or neurological disorders discussed in this section that can include this symptom:
    1. Delusions of grandeur or a sense of grandiosity
    2. Depressed mood
    3. Significant impairment of normal daily functioning
    4. Hallucinations
    5. Loss of appetite
    6. Guilt
    7. Avoidance of social interaction
    8. Significant weight gain or loss
    9. Suicidal thoughts or attempts
    10. Onset linked to trauma
    11. Fluctuations in mood
    12. Memory loss
    13. Impaired sensory or motor function

  1. Delusions of grandeur have been described in individuals suffering from:
    • Bipolar disorder
    • Schizophrenia
    • Parkinson’s disease
  2. Depressed mood occurs in: 
    1. All types of Depressive disorders
      • e.g. Major depression, Seasonal Affective Disorder, etc.
    2. Bipolar disorder
    3. Schizophrenia
  3. All disorders have the potential for significant impairment of normal functioning (by definition)
  4. Hallucinations are most often associated with:
    1. Schizophrenia,
    2. ...but there are reports of individuals with degenerative diseases (like Alzheimer’s disease) also experiencing hallucinations
  5. Loss of appetite is often a symptom of :
    • Depressive disorders 
    • Bipolar disorder
  6. Feelings of guilt are common in:
    • depressive disorders
    • bipolar disorder
  7. Avoidance of social interaction can be common in:
    • depressive disorders
    • bipolar disorder
    • schizophrenia
    • social anxiety disorder (SAD)
    • avoidant personality disorder
  8. Weight loss or gain are associated with:
    • depressive disorders
    • bipolar disorder
    • anxiety disorders
      • e.g generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, etc.
    • schizophrenia
  9. Suicidal thoughts are associated with:
    • depressive disorders
    • bipolar disorder
    • post-traumatic stress disorder
    • any number of personality disorders
    • schizophrenia
  10. Onset linked to trauma is linked to:
    • Post-traumatic stress disorder
    • Dissociative identity disorder 
  11. Emotional instability/ Fluctiations in mood are linked with:
    • Depressive disorders
    • bipolar disorder
    • schizophrenia
    • histrionic personality disorder
    • borderline personality disorder 
  12. Memory loss is a hallmark of:
    • Dissociative disorders
      • e.g. dissociative identity disorder and dissociative amnesia
    • Alzheimer’s disease
  13. Impaired sensory and motor function is associated with:
    • Somatic symptom disorder
    • Parkinson’s disease
    • the latter stages of Alzheimer’s disease

31

Psychological Disorders

  • Schizophrenia
    • Positive vs. Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia 

Identify each of the following as an example of either a positive or a negative symptom of schizophrenia:

  1. Thought broadcasting
  2. Flat affect
  3. Delusion of grandeur 
  4. Disturbance of affect 
  5. Thought insertion
  6. Disorganized behavior
  7. Avolition 
    • =general lack of drive to perform activities or pursue meaningful goals

  1. Positive
  2. Negative
  3. Positive
  4. Positive
  5. Positive
  6. Positive 
  7. Negative

32

Psychological Disorders

  • Schizophrenia
    • Positive vs. Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia 

Provide a conceptual definition for the following terms related to Schizophrenia:

  • Prodromal phase
  • Disturbance of affect
    • Flat affect
    • Inappropriate affect
    • Blunting a.k.a., "Blunted affect"
  • Hallucinations
    • are often ____ in nature
  • Delusions/ Delusional Thinking
    • Delusions of grandeur
    • delusions of persecution
    • delusions of reference,
    • thought insertion,
    • thought broadcasting,
  • Disorganized Behavior
  • Catatonia
  • Echolalia 
  • Echopraxia 

Prodromal phase of schizophrenia

  • is essentially EARLY onset of schizophrenia
  • At this stage, mild, nonpsychotic symptoms begin to surface
    • As a result, the individual in the prodromal phase may begin to exhibit behavioral differences
      • e.g. may lose interest in things that once brought pleasure or may begin to isolate themselves from others
    • ...that are a signal that something is wrong

Disturbance of affect

  • Refers to the emotional irregularities that can occur in individuals who suffer from schizophrenia
  • Such disturbances can manifest themselves as:
    • Inappropriate emotionality ("Inappropriate affect")
    • As significant reductions in emotional response ("Blunted affect"), or
    • As a complete lack of emotional responsiveness ("Flat affect")
  • Schizophrenia is often marked by the presence of Hallucinations (often auditory in nature) and Delusions

In both instances, the schizophrenic is not in touch with reality

DELUSIONS ("Delusional thinking")

  • Often involves:
    • An inflated sense of self-importance or power
      • ("Delusions of Grandeur")
    • A belief that others are plotting to hurt or control them
      • ("Delusions of Persecution")
    • Seeing personal meaning in any variety of mundane events that occur around them
      • ("Delusions of Reference")
    • Believing that others are placing thoughts in their minds
      • ("Thought Insertion")
    • That others have access or can hear their thoughts
      • ("Thought Broadcasting")

Aside from disordered patterns of thought, individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia often exhibit:

  • Disorganized behavior
    • in which they engage in bizarre, pointless behaviors

Others may exhibit "catatonia"

  • ...In which they remain abnormally still for extended periods of time

In some instances the individual may automatically repeat anything that is said by others

  • ("Echolalia")

Or imitate any movements made by someone else

  • ("Echopraxia")

33

Psychological Disorders

  • Somatic Symptom & Related Disorders

What disorder are "Hypochondriacs" classified under?

NEITHER!

What was formerly known as “hypochondriasis” was separated into these new, more empirical categories in DSM-5

  • Somatic Symptom Disorder and Illness Anxiety Disorder have similar symptoms that could be easily confused
    • SSD patients
      • DO have a verifiable physical symptom

"WTF is this (symptom)? OMG I'm worried nobody knows what it is!!!"

  • IAD patients
    • have anxiety about the POSSIBILITY of having an undiagnosed illness, or worry they will develop one
    • ...but have NO current symptoms 

"OMG what if I'm sick?? I don't want to get sick and die OMG!! What if I get Alzheimers or something?!"

35

Psychological Disorders

  • Understanding Psychological Disorders:
    • Compare the Biomedical & Biopsychosocial approaches

Biomedical Approach

  • Psych disorders are caused by biological or chemical dysfunction
    • e.g., genetic predisposition, abnormally low hormone or neurotransmitter levels
  • Treatments are primarily biochemical
    • e.g., surgery, drugs
  • Considered more narrow by psychologists
  • Focused more on relieving symptoms

Biopsychosocial Approach

  • Psych disorders are caused by a combination of:
    • Biochemical Factors
      • e.g., genetic defect, low hormone level
    • Psychological Factors
      • ex: personality, unhealthy behaviors
    • Sociological Factors
      • ex: culture, peer pressure
  • Treatments should include interventions in all three of these areas to be most effective
  • Considered more broad 
  • Generally more “accepted” by psychologists
  • Focused more on solving underlying causes and problems

36

Understanding Psychological Disorders

Biomedical vs Biopsychosocial approach

Describe in detail how the following problems would be addressed using primarily a biomedical approach, and alternatively how they would be addressed using primarily a biopsychosocial approach

  • Patient A: 
    • is morbidly obese and has a history of failed dieting and weight loss attempts
  • Patient B: 
    • Suffers from severe depression after having multiple pregnancies end in miscarriage
  • Patient C: 
    • Recently survived a major cardiac arrest and underwent multiple bypass surgery
    • He has a very high blood cholesterol level

Patient A 

  • A morbidly obese individual would probably be referred for gastric bypass surgery from someone coming from a biomedical perspective
  • While a healthcare provider taking a biopsychosocial approach might also recommend gastric bypass surgery, this would be done in conjunction with some sort of psychological evaluation and counseling to help the patient overcome unhealthy patterns of behavior that contributed to and maintained the morbid obesity

Patient B

  • The patient might be treated with antidepressant medications and/or medications that would stabilize future pregnancies by someone coming from the biomedical perspective
  • Again, these things would be done, but IN CONJUNCTION with counseling on the grief and loss felt by the woman in the biopsychosocial approach

Patient C

  • Biomedically speaking, the patient would be treated with medications to help lower cholesterol.
  • From a biopsychosocial perspective, this drug therapy would be combined with an attempt to help the patient understand and process the fear that they might feel as a result of these experiences
  • In addition, they might receive counseling on how to reduce stress and live a healthier lifestyle in the future

37

Psychological Disorders

  • Define "Personality Disorders"

An enduring pattern of personal experience and behavior that:

  • Deviates noticeably from the expectations of one's culture,
  • is pervasive and inflexible,
  • has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, 
  • is stable over time, and
  • leads to personal distress or impairment

38

Psychological Disorders

  • Somatic Symptom & Related Disorders
    • Describe:
      • Illness Anxiety Disorder (IAD)
      • Conversion Disorder

Illness Anxiety Disorder (IAD)

THINK: Overly worried first-time mom

  • Characterized by:
    • Heightened bodily sensations 
    • Intense anxiousness about the POSSIBILITY of an undiagnosed illness
      • "What if something's wrong?!?!?!"
    • Individuals may devote excessive time and energy to health concerns
      • often obsessively researching them
        • WebMD "Experts"

Conversion Disorder

THINK: When someone goes BLIND with rage (literally!)

  • Characterized by the “conversion” of psychological stress into ACTUAL NEUROLOGICAL DEFICITS--
    • usually numbness, paralysis, or blindness

40

Psychological Disorders

  • "Dissociative Disorders" are characterized by what?

  • an apparent escape from one’s identity

...as a means of avoiding stress

Ex: Faking your death to start a "new life"

42

Psychological Disorders

  • Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders: 

Describe Somatic Symptom Disorder (SSD)

Somatic Symptom Disorder (SSD)

  • Characterized by physical symptoms of illness or injury
    • ...that CANNOT be explained by a general medical condition or another mental disorder
  • Individuals often feel severe anxiety or distress about their undiagnosed condition
    • and are preoccupied with its symptoms

The problem is NOT being fabricated by the patient, but is perceived by them as REAL

43

Psychological Disorders

  • Bipolar Disorder: 
    • Describe the basic diagnostic symptoms of Bipolar disorder according to DSM-5

According to DSM-5, the following criteria would be used in diagnosing an individual with bipolar disorder 

  1. At least 1 week of abnormally elevated or irritated mood
    • ...During which the individual also experiences at least three (four if mood is only irritable) of the following characteristics:
      • inflated sense of self
      • decreased need for sleep
      • increased talkativeness
      • racing thoughts
      • increased distractibility
      • increased psychomotor activation
      • excessive involvement in pleasurable, yet risky, activities
  2. This change in mood:
    • Significantly impairs work or family functioning, OR
    • Leads to hospitalization
      • ...to prevent harm to self or others
  3. These changes are NOT better explained by:
    • Drug use, or
    • Some other medical condition
      • (nothing else to blame it on)

44

The Biological Basis of Nervous System Disorders

  • In Alzheimer's Disease, are women or men at higher risk?

    • What is another major risk factor?


       

Women are at higher risk than men

Family history of Alzheimer’s is a major risk factor

45

The Biological Basis of Nervous System Disorders

  • What are some Biological Correlates of Schizophrenia?
    • How do most anti-schizophrenic drugs work?

Schizophrenia

Biological Correlates:

  • Strongly associated with increased dopamine levels in the brain

Most anti-schizophrenic drugs are competitive inhibitors

  • ....that bind dopamine receptors

Having a family member with schizophrenia is a risk factor. 

46

The Biological Basis of Nervous System Disorders

  • What are some Biological Correlates of Depression?

Depression

Biological Correlates:

  • DECREASED monoamine levels in the brain, that is, the neurotransmitters:
    • Serotonin
    • Dopamine
    • Norepinephrine
  • INCREASED cortisol level and glucose metabolism in the amygdala

The hippocampus of chronically depressed patients atrophies (shrinks!) compared to healthy individuals

  • Having a family member with depression is a risk factor

47

The Biological Basis of Nervous System Disorders

  • Describe "Parkinson's Disease"
    • What are some Biological Correlates of Parkinson's?
      • What is used to treat Parkinson's? 

Parkinson’s Disease

  • Parkinson’s is a neurodegenerative disease
  • Is characterized by:
    • slow, halting movements
    • tremors
    • muscle rigidity
    • a shuffling gait
  • Dementia and language difficulties are common, but NOT ALWAYS present

Biological Correlates:

  • Decreased stimulation of the motor cortex by the basal ganglia
    • due to a decrease in dopamine production
      • by the substantia nigra
  • The basal ganglia is necessary for producing SMOOTH motor movements

Parkinson’s is often treated with L-Dopa, a precursor changed into dopamine in the brain

 

48

The Biological Basis of Nervous System Disorders

  • What are some Biological Correlates of Bipolar Disorder?

Bipolar Disorder

Biological Correlates:

  • INCREASED monoamine (neurotransmitter) levels in the brain

Increased risk for persons with:

  • Multiple sclerosis (MS)

OR 

  • who have a family member with bipolar disorder 

 

50

  • The Nervous System and Behavior
    • What are "NeuroPEPTIDES?"
      • Give a common example of one
    • How do they compare to Neurotransmitters?

NEUROPEPTIDES

  • Neuro-active peptides whose function is similar to that of neurotransmitters
  • Endorphins are one example

Comparatively speaking:

  • Neurotransmitters=
    • FASTER!!!
    • shorter-lived effects
  • Neuropeptides=
    • S L O W E R
    • longer-lasting effects

50

The Biological Basis of Nervous System Disorders

  • Describe Stem Cell Therapy
    • What types of diseases could this (hopefully) treat? 

STEM CELL THERAPY:

  • It was assumed for years that neurons never regrow; that once dead, a neuron could never be replaced 
  • Recent research has shown that the brain of healthy individuals DOES occasionally form new neurons out of pluripotent stem cells in the CNS
    • cells similar to neurologically-bound fetal stem cells

This has provided hope for treating diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s

...and holds out the promise of someday being able to regrow or replace nerves damaged or malfunctioning in any NEUROGENERATIVE disease or paralysis 

51

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality
    • From which embryological layer (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) does the pituitary gland develop?
    • From which of the neural tube subdivisions  is the posterior pituitary derived?
    • What about the anterior pituitary?

  • The pituitary gland is derived from the ectodermal layer ("Attractoderm")
  • The posterior portion of the pituitary gland is derived from the diencephalon
  • The anterior pituitary actually arises from the oral ectoderm region

51

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality
    • Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 

What does the Temporal Lobe control? (2) 

Q image thumb

Temporal Lobe

  1. Hearing/language []
    1. (primary AUDITORY cortex)
  2. Memory
    1. (hippocampus)

52

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality
    • Functional Regions of the CNS

FOREBRAIN

  • Describe the function of:
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Basal Ganglia

Q image thumb

Thalamus

  • Consciousness (sleep/wake)
  • Relay b/t subcortical areas and cerebrum

Hypothalamus

  • Hunger
  • Thirst
  • Emotion (2°)
  • Major Endocrine effects
    • via releasing hormones to the pituitary gland 

Basal Ganglia

  • Voluntary motor control
  • Procedural memory

 

53

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality
    • Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 

What does the Occipital Lobe control? (1) 

Q image thumb

OCCIPITAL LOBE

  1. VISION
  • (Primary visual cortex)

54

Psychological Disorders

  • Personality Disorders

Cluster B

  • Describe:
    • Antisocial Personality Disorder 
    • Borderline Personality Disorder
      • What is it Characterized by?
      • What is it Accompanied by?

Antisocial Personality Disorder

THINK: Serial Killer 

  • Persistent pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others
  • May be accompanied by:
    • cruelty to animals
    • lack of concern for others
    • difficulty feeling empathy for others
    • impulsivity
    • aggressiveness or irritability
    • failure to conform to social norms, etc
  • Symptoms usually begin in childhood and include such things as:
    • setting fires
    • legal trouble
    • difficulty with authority
  • Never diagnosed before age 18
    • Must include some symptoms before the age of 15
  • Severe cases are further classified as a sociopath or a psychopath
    • Sociopath = severe deficit of conscience
    • Psychopath = complete lack of conscience

Borderline Personality Disorder

THINK: Kerri Yockey from Albertson's 

  • Characterized by pervasive instability in:
    • Moods
    • Interpersonal relationships
    • Self-image
    • Behavior
  • This instability often disrupts the individual’s sense of self-identity
  • May be accompanied by:
    • self-destructive behavior
  • Intense episodes of:
    • anxiety
    • depression
    • irritability, or
    • anger

...when other people fail to meet unrealistic expectations

 

55

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality
    • Functional Regions of the CNS

HINDBRAIN (aka brainstem)

  • Embryological Origin=?
    • What 4 structures does it give rise to, and what are their respective functions

Q image thumb

Embryological Origin= 

Rhombencephalon (INFERIOR neural tube)

  1. Medulla Oblongata
    • Breathing
    • heart rate
    • Digestion
  2. Pons
    • sensory and motor tracts b/t the medulla and cortex
  3. Cerebellum
    • Balanced, refined motor movements
  4. Reticular Formation
    • States of consciousness (sleep⇒wake)

 

A image thumb
57

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality

    • Functional Regions of the CNS

  • FOREBRAIN
    • Embryological Origin=?
    • List the 5 structures that make up the forebrain

Q image thumb

Embryological Origin:

Prosencephalon (superior neural tube)

  1. Cerebral Cortex
  2. Thalamus
  3. Hypothalamus
  4. Limbic System
  5. Basal Ganglia

A image thumb
59

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality
    • Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 

What does the Parietal Lobe control? (3) 

Q image thumb

Parietal Lobe

  1. Tactile sensation
  2. Spatial reasoning
  3. Some language []
    • remember: 1° language is controlled by the Frontal Lobe

60

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality
    • Functional Regions of the CNS

MIDBRAIN

  • Embryological Origin=?
  • What 2 structures does it give rise to, and what are their respective functions?

Q image thumb

Embryological Origin:

MESENCEPHALON (medial neural tube)

  1. Superior Colliculi
    1. visual motor reflexes
  2. Inferior Colluculi
    1. Auditory center
    2. Hearing reflexes

A image thumb
61

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality
    • Functional Regions of the CNS

FOREBRAIN

  • Describe the function of:
    • Cerebral Cortex
    • Limbic System

 

Q image thumb

Cerebral Cortex

  • Responsible for many "higher-order" functions
    • like language and information processing
  • Complex Perception
  • Cognition

Limbic System

  • Emotion (1°)
  • Memory
    • Hippocampus is part of the Limbic System

 

 

62

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality

Describe the following brain structures:

  • Pineal Gland

  • Amygdala

  • Hippocampus

  • Posterior Pituitary

  • Anterior Pituitary

Q image thumb

Pineal Gland (forebrain)

  • Secretes melatonin
  • regulates sleep
  • receives input from retina
    • re: circadian rhythms

Amygdala (forebrain, limbic system)

  • Emotion
  • motivation
  • Implicit emotional memory

Hippocampus (forebrain, limbic system)

  • Memory consolidation (short-term⇒long-term)
  • Explicit emotional memory

Posterior Pituitary (forebrain)

  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin

Anterior Pituitary

  • FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, Prolactin and GH
    • (mnemonic: FLAT PiG)

A image thumb
64

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality
    • Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 

What does the Frontal Lobe control? (6) 

Q image thumb

FRONTAL LOBE

  1. Conscious movement
    • (motor cortex)
  2. Executive functions
  3. Language
    • (Broca’s area)
  4. Reasoning 
  5. Judgment
  6. Problem-solving, etc.

66

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality
    • Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 
      • Name the 4 Lobes

  1. Frontal Lobe
  2. Parietal Lobe
  3. Temporal Lobe
  4. Occipital Lobe

A image thumb
67

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality
    • Functional Regions of the CNS
  • During embryological development, the neural tube is divided into the prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon

    • The rhombencephalon differentiates further into the metencephalon and myelencephalon

    • The prosencephalon differentiates further into the telencephalon and the diencephalon

  • Suppose that physical or chemical injury occurred to one of these embryological regions during development

    In each case (metencephalon, myelencephalon, diencephalon,& telencephalon) which adult brain region and function would be lost or impaired?

The Metencephalon

  • will serve as a precursor to the pons, cerebellum, and reticular formation
  • Disruptions to these areas would impact:
    • sensory-motor processing and coordination
    • balance, and
    • the sleep-wake cycle

The Myelencephalon

  • will give rise to the medulla oblongata
    • which is important for basic functions like:
      • respiration and
      • heart rate

The Diencephalon

  • would contain structures like the hypothalamus, thalamus, and pineal gland
    • It also provides connections to the peripheral NS and the endocrine system
  • Disruption of these systems would involve widespread effects including
    • sensory processing
    • regulation of peripheral NS function
    • regulation of endocrine function, and
    • homeostasis

The Telencephalon

  • contains olfactory bulbs, cerebral cortex, and the basal ganglia
  • Disruption to these areas would affect:
    • intelligence
    • language
    • motor function, and
    • sense of smell

69

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Influence of Neurotransmitters on Behavior

For each of the six neurotransmitters (ACh, Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Serotonin, GABA), describe:

  1. WHERE the neurotransmitter is most likely to be found and/or act

  2. Its primary regulatory function(s)

  3. Any correlates to disease or psychological disorders

Hints:

  1. Some parts of this question will require multiple responses
    • For example, acetylcholine is:
      • located in BOTH the PNS and CNS, and
      • has multiple functions in various divisions of the nervous system
  2. Low levels of some neurotransmitters are associated with multiple diseases or psychological disorders

ACETYLCHOLINE

  • is found in both the CNS and the PNS
    • In the CNS, acetylcholine is involved in arousal and attention
      • Depletions of acetylcholine centrally is associated with the memory deficits associated with Alzheimer’s disease
    • In the PNS, acetylcholine is the primary neurotransmitter of the neuromuscular junction
      • Is also found in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system

EPINEPHRINE (aka "adrenaline")

  • is found primarily in the PNS
  • Is associated with the stress response elicited by activation of the sympathetic nervous system 

NOREPINEPHRINE (aka "noradrenaline")  

  • is found in both the CNS and PNS
    • Centrally, norepinephrine is associated with attention and emotional processing
      • Anxiety disorders and depression are associated with decreased norepinephrine activity
    • Peripherally, norepinephrine contributes to the stress response associated with activity of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system 

DOPAMINE

  • is found in the CNS
  • Is associated with sensorimotor integration and in reward processing
    • Parkinson’s disease
    • Tourette’s syndrome
    • Huntington’s chorea, and
    • Schizophrenia

...are all associated with abnormal activity in the dopamine system

SEROTONIN

  • is found in the CNS
  • Is associated with homeostatic regulation of sleep and appetite
  • Serotonin is also involved in regulation of mood
  • Lowered serotonin levels are associated with depression

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

  • is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter of the CNS

70

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Influence of Neurotransmitters on Behavior
    • Name the 6 neurotransmitters we need to be familiar with for the MCAT
      • (some might also be known by other names)

  1. Acetylcholine
  2. Epinephrine
    • a.k.a., "Adrenaline"
  3. Norepinephrine
    • a.k.a., "Noradrenaline"
  4. Dopamine
  5. Serotonin
  6. γ-Aminobutyric acid (shown below)
    • a.k.a., "GABA"

A image thumb
71

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality
    • Embryological Brain Regions: Swellings of the ____ ____

Q image thumb

Embryological Brain Regions= Swellings of the NEURAL TUBE

A image thumb
73

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality

Methods Used to Study the Brain 

  • Name 3 INVASIVE and 3 NON-invasive methods for studying the brain 

"Invasive"=  body is "invaded," or cut open

NON-INVASIVE:

  1. Electroencephalography (EEG)
  2. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS)
  3. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF)

INVASIVE:

  1. Direct Electrode Stimulation
    1. (open cranium, during brain surgery)
  2. Human Brain Injury Case Studies
  3. Lab Animal Extirpation

74

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality

Lateralization of Cortical Functions

  • Provide a conceptual definition for each of the following terms:
    • Contralateral
    • Ipsilateral
    • Left hemisphere
    • Right hemisphere
    • Dominant hemisphere
    • Non-dominant hemisphere

Contralateral

  • literally means "opposite side"
    • In this context, contralateral refers to the idea that sensory and motor functions of the left side of the body are processed in the right side of the brain

Ipsilateral

  • would refer to the same side
    • For example, a tumor involving the right side of the brain may affect vision ipsilaterally--
      • that is, in the right eye

The Dominant hemisphere

  • is the side of the brain that is used in controlling the preferred arm or leg
  • Most individuals are right handed
    • therefore, the dominant hemisphere for most people is the left hemisphere

Left hemisphere

  • is also thought to be more important for linguistic processing in most individuals

Right hemisphere

  • is considered the non-dominant hemisphere for most individuals, but that is not to say that the right hemisphere is not important for a variety of functions
    • For instance, the right hemisphere is thought to be much more important in visuospatial processing and in the processing of certain kinds of emotional information

76

The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality

  • Lateralization of Cortical Functions

Suppose a person sustains major injury to the dominant hemisphere, but NOT to the non-dominant hemisphere

What losses of function are most likely,

and to WHICH side of the body?

What if the injury IS to the non-dominant hemisphere?

Damage to the dominant hemisphere would likely result in:

  • LANGUAGE difficulties
  • loss of CONTROL of MOVEMENT

.....to the RIGHT side of the body

Assuming that for most people the

left hemisphere is dominant

Damage to the non-dominant hemisphere would lose:

  • Some control of movement
    • in the LEFT side of the body
  • Might also result in:
    • difficulties in spatial navigation
    • emotional processing

77

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality
    • Functional Regions of the CNS

Inferior Neural Tube 

  • Gives rise to what structure?
    • What are the functions of this structure? 

Q image thumb

Inferior Neural Tube gives rise to the SPINAL CORD

  • Spinal Cord:
    •  Reflexes
    • Bundled tracts to and from peripheral NS

78

The Nervous System and Behavior

  • The Brain: Structure and Region-Based Functionality

Lateralization of Cortical Functions

  •  Predict the likely repercussions of a rare congenital defect resulting in a person with a NORMALLY functioning brain, but NO corpus callosum? 
    • Hint: The corpus callosum is a bundle of nerves that connects the left & right hemispheres of the brain

Q image thumb

  • Individuals who suffer from congenital agenesis of the corpus callosum have difficulty transferring information between the two hemispheres
    • As a result, they experience difficulties in problem solving
    • In addition, they also exhibit:
      • Impaired social behavior
      • a variety of sensory impairments, and
      • Problems in:
        • muscle tone
        • motor behavior

79

Theories of Personality

  • Jung vs. Freud:

    • "LIBIDO"

Q image thumb

Freud

  • Driving psychic energy of the ID 
    • Is primarily sexual

Jung

  • Generalized psychic energy
    • Not exclusively sexual

80

Theories of Personality

  • Jung vs. Freud:

    • the "UNCONSCIOUS"

Q image thumb

Freud

  • "Storage place" of unacceptable, repressed desires
    • Parts of the EGO and SUPEREGO are unconscious
    • As is ALL of the ID

Jung

  • Storage place of repressed memories
    • both good and bad
  • Ego is NOT part of the unconscious mind
    • t is 100% conscious
  • Two Subdivisions of the unconscious:
    • Personal unconscious
    • Collective unconscious

81

Theories of Personality

  • Jung's Archetypes

Provide a conceptual definition and real-life example for each of Jung’s archetypes (4) 

  • Hint: "S.A.P.S."
  • Which of these archetypes is similar to Freud's ID?

Q image thumb

"Archetypes" are UNIVERSAL mental images or concepts within the collective unconscious

...that influence behavior and thought

THINK: Superman= "Hero" archetype

  • Jung identified several different archetypes:
  1. The Self 
  2. The Anima/Animus
  3. The Persona
  4. The Shadow
    • similar to Freud’s Id

The Self

  • is an archetype in which the entire mind (both conscious and unconscious) is unified
  • Examples:
    • Circles, squares, trees and holy figures all serve as representations of the self

The Anima

  • represents the female in a male
  • Animus represents the male in a female

Examples:

  • Anima
    • The image of the Virgin Mary
  • Animus
    • Jesus Christ

The Persona

  • is how one presents themselves to the world
  • Example:
    • is often represented by the symbol of a MASK

The Shadow

  • is an archetype that embodies uncertainty and danger
    • ...and is often alluring in some way
  • Example:
    • Any dark figure that appears in a dream
      • e.g. the devil

 

82

Theories of Personality

  • Jung's Archetypes are ____s and ____s that have what across what?
    • Where do they originate from?

How do Jung's Archetypes relate to Freud's theory of personality?

JUNG'S ARCHETYPES:

...are Images and thoughts that have UNIVERSAL MEANING across cultures

  • Perhaps arising from our shared ancestral past

UNIQUE to Jung, NOTHING comparable from Freud

83

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

Describe "ID"

  • What is the only realm it operates in?
  • What behaviors is it responsible for?
  • Is it present at birth?
  • Is the _______ component of "Personality"
  • Involves what 3 concepts?

Q image thumb

  100% UNCONSCIOUS

  • Responsible for all instinctive and primitive behaviors.
  • The only one of the three components present from birth
  • Is the Primary (or most important) component of personality;
    • the “source of all psychic energy
  • Involves the concepts of:
    • Primary Process
    • Wish Fulfillment
    • Libido

84

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

ID

  • Define Primary Process and Wish Fulfillment as they relate to Freud’s theory of personality

Q image thumb

The id seeks to have all its needs GRATIFIED as soon as possible

The Primary Process​​

  • Would be a way that the id deal with the frustration of delayed gratification
    • ...because it serves as a memory of the object needed for gratification
      • ...until the gratification could ACTUALLY be realized
      • EX: No BJ's til marriage, so you think about BJ's until your wedding day
  • As the ego and superego come online and actively suppress some of the id’s demands, a person might experience dreams that serve as "wish-fulfillment"
    • Denied its demands, the id seeks to satisfy them through unconscious thought process
    • Ex: Wet Dreams

86

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

Describe the "EGO"

  • What realms does it operate in?
  • How does it relate to the Id and Superego?
  • Is it present at birth?
  • What 2 concepts does it include?

Q image thumb

EGO

Operates in the:

Conscious, PRE-conscious and UNCONSCIOUS realms

  • Responsible for helping the desires of the Id to be realized in a way acceptable in real-life scenarios
  • Also helps balance the "perfectionist tendencies" of the Superego
  • Is NOT present at birth
    • develops from the Id

Includes the concepts of:

  1. Secondary Process
  2. The Reality Principle

87

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

  • Describe the Thematic Apperception Test​

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST

  • Respondents are provided a series of ambiguous pictures
    • ...and are asked to come up with a dramatic story about the picture

88

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

  • Describe "Projection"
    • Give an example

PROJECTION

  • involves attributing YOUR OWN unwelcome thoughts/feelings to someone else

Example:

  • "WHY ARE YOU ANGRY?!?!"
  • A teacher who dislikes a student may think that she likes the student, but insists that the student doesn’t like HER
  • A man is angry with his wife because he believes that she is bored in their relationship, when in fact HE is bored with their relationship

A image thumb
90

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

  • Describe "Regression"
    • Give an example

  • Regression involves reverting to patterns of behavior that were used at earlier stages of life--
    • in order to deal with stress

Example:

Adults throwing temper tantrums after being denied a job promotion or a teenager sucking his/her thumb after being dumped by their significant other would be examples of regression as an ego defense mechanism

A image thumb
91

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

  • Describe (in General), the point of these tests:
    • Rorschach Inkblot Test
    • Sentence Completion Test
    • Thematic Apperception Test
    • Word Association Test
  • What Defense Mechanism is most applicable to these tests?

 

All of these tests are considered projective tests

  • In each situation, it is assumed that the task at hand (e.g. interpreting an ambiguous picture) would allow a clinician to gain invaluable insight into the test taker’s unconscious motives and desires
  • Although any number of ego defense mechanisms might be associated, REPRESSION is probably the one that people using these approaches are trying to overcome

92

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

  • Describe "Displacement"
    • Give an example

DISPLACEMENT 

  • involves diverting unacceptable feelings onto someone or something other than their source
    • usually diverted onto something/someone that is less threatening than the source

Example:

  • A child who is angry at her parents for disciplining her may bite her little sister
  • A man who was just fired by his boss may come home to start a fight with his neighbor

A image thumb
93

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

SUPEREGO

  • Provide conceptual definitions for Conscience and Ego Ideal as they relate to Freud’s theory of personality

According to Freud, the SUPEREGO is comprised of both conscience and the ego ideal

  • The Ego Ideal sets lofty standards for the EGO to conform with
    • In other words, the ego ideal serves as a model for what a person should and wants to be
  • The Conscience, on the other hand, serves as a system of rules and admonishments for “bad behavior
    • "Dang man, you shouldn't have stolen that lollipop from the candy store"
  • The Conscience pushes us towards our "Ego Ideal"

94

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

  • Describe "Sublimation"
    • Give an example

SUBLIMATION

THINK: Wounded Warrior Project ​

(Dad dies=BAD, but leads to POSITIVE outcome)

  • involves channeling unacceptable ("negative") thoughts or urges into something that is more acceptable

Examples:

  • Sublimation might be used by artists who use some personal tragedy (BAD) to energize them to create a new work of art (Good!)
  • People may also use humor as a way to channel their unacceptable thoughts (BAD) into a lighthearted joke (Good!)

A image thumb
96

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

  • Describe the Word Association Test

 

WORD ASSOCIATION TEST

  • Participants are provided a word and asked to provide a word that they associate with it

Examples:

  • "Beer"
    • "Pong"
  • "Dog"
    • "pound"

98

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

  • Describe "Denial"
    • Give an example

DENIAL

  • is an inability to accept some reality
  • In situations in which individuals deny something despite the fact that there is an abundance of evidence to suggest that it IS true or IS occurring, we might say that individual is “in denial.”

Example:

  • A student who has NO mathematical chance of passing a course, yet studying furiously for a final exam could be described as using denial to protect themselves from the reality of a poor course grade
  • Alternatively, a woman who refuses to recognize that her husband is having an affair despite clear evidence to the contrary would also be using denial as an ego defense mechanism

A image thumb
99

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

  • Describe the Sentence Completion Test

SENTENCE COMPLETION TEST

  • Respondents are provided with beginnings of sentences and are asked to complete the sentence

....in some personally meaningful way

101

Theories of Personality

  • Social Cognitive Personality Theories: 
    • Alfred Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment

Albert Bandura’s famous Bobo Doll Experiment either illustrates or provides support for which 5 of the following 9 concepts or theories?

  1. The Spacing effect
  2. Classical conditioning
  3. Social-cognitive theory
  4. Learning
  5. Modeling
  6. Behaviorism
  7. Gender-based differences in aggression
  8. Social learning theory
  9. The influence of genes on behavior

Q image thumb

Provides support for:

  1. Social cognitive theory
  2. Learning
  3. Modeling
  4. Gender-based differences in aggression
  5. Social learning theory

102

Theories of Personality

  • Behavioral Personality Theory

B.F. SKINNER

  • What leads to behavior (according to Behaviorists)?
  • How should you respond to negative aspects of personality or other neuroses?
  • Define a "Token Economy"

 

Q image thumb

Environment (reinforcement) ⇒ Behavior

Therapy for negative aspects of personality or any other neuroses should focus on operant conditioning-- 

  • to reinforce more desirable behaviors
    • rather than focusing on some "underlying cause"
      • as would be suggested by the humanists or psychoanalysts

Token Economy

  • Positive behavior is reinforced with tokens
    • ...that can be exchanged later for:
      • Prizes
      • Treats, or
      • Other reinforcers

103

Theories of Personality

Social Cognitive Personality Theories: 

  • Who was the first person to name/describe this theory?
  • These theories say personality is the result of what 4 things?
  • What 4 UNIQUE aspects set it apart from other perspectives? (Such as Behaviorism or Humanism)

Social Cognitive Personality Theories:

First named by Alfred Bandura​​​

  • Personality is the result of:
    1. Observational learning
    2. Self-efficacy
    3. Situational influences
    4. Cognitive processes

UNIQUE ASPECTS: (Relative to other perspectives such as Behaviorism or Humanism)

  1. People learn from observing and modeling others:
    • NOT only personal experiences or conditioning
      • Example of this: Bobo Doll Experiment
  2. People do NOT always apply what they have learned
    • perceived and actual consequences influence individual choices
  3. People are most likely to model the behavior of someone with whom they identify closely
  4. Self-Efficacy directly impacts learning
    • A person’s belief in their ability to learn and implement new behaviors is closely associated with their ability to do so

105

Theories of Personality

  • PSYCHOANALYTIC Personality Theories: 
    • ...say that personality is mostly a function of _____, ________, __________ influences.
    • Include the theories of _____ and ____. 

Psychoanalytic Personality Theories

  • Personality is mostly a function of underlying, internal, unconscious influences
  • The theories of Freud and Jung

106

Theories of Personality

  • Trait Personality Theories

Compare Type vs. Trait Theories

TYPE THEORIST VIEW

  • Personality characteristics exist as discrete, fixed categories
  • Most people will fit into one category or another
    • e.g., Introverts and extroverts are two types of people
  • A single, or small set of traits defines personality type

TRAIT THEORIST VIEW

  • Personality characteristics are part of a larger continuum of personality
    • e.g., Introversion and extroversion are traits describing ones position along a continuum
      • Individuals can be at either end, or anywhere in the middle
  • Personality is a combination of this and many other traits along many other continuums

108

Theories of Personality

  • Jung's Dichotomies: The first example of _______ _____s
    • Name the 3 types ("___ vs ___")
  • ​How do we combine these dichotomies to  give "Jung's Eight Cognitive Processes?" 

Jung's Dichotomies: The first example of Personality Types

  1. Extroverted vs. Introverted
  2. Sensing vs. Intuiting
  3. Thinking vs. Feeling

Combining Extroverted or Introverted with each of the two remaining dichotomies gives eight (8) personality types often called “Jung’s Eight Cognitive Processes”

110

Theories of Personality

  • Jung's Theory of Personality
    • Provide a conceptual definition for the Personal unconscious and the Collective unconscious as they relate to Jung’s theory of personality
    • Compare & Contrast the two

The Personal unconscious are the parts of our minds that we are not consciously aware of, but do affect our behavior

  • ...and can be revealed to us in our dreams
    • In this way, Jung’s view of the "personal unconscious" was very similar to Freud’s ideas about the "unconscious mind"
  • The personal unconscious is what allows us to be creative and original in our thoughts

The Collective unconscious is the portion of the unconscious mind that is inherited and contains universal themes through all of our lives

  • The collective unconscious represents a virtual repository of all of human history and experience inside each of us

111

Theories of Personality

  • Jung vs. Freud:
    • Causes of BEHAVIOR

Freud

  • Caused by repressed desires from childhood
    • "Penis Envy" leads to female sexuality and gender identity (riiiiiiiiiiiiight.....)

Jung

  • Caused by:
    1. Past experiences
      1. from childhood or adulthood
    2. Future aspirations

112

Theories of Personality

Personality = Individual differences in one’s characteristic patterns of ______, _____, and ______

thinking, feeling & behaving 

113

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

EGO

  • Provide conceptual definitions for the Secondary Process and the Reality Principle as they relate to Freud’s theory of personality

Q image thumb

  • The Secondary Process is the EGO’s attempt to satisfy the demands that are represented by the Primary Process
  • Because the ID’s demands would often be inappropriate, the ego operates on the Reality Principle
    • ...to delay the id’s gratification until a more appropriate time

114

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

ID

  • Describe what the "Libido" is

Q image thumb

Libido

The “psychic energy” created by the survival and sexual instincts

It is part of the Id

Was considered by Freud to be the driving influence of ALL behavior

115

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

  • Describe "Reaction formation"
    • Give an example

Reaction formation

  • involves behaving in ways that are in direct contradiction to one’s TRUE feelings

Example:

  • I feel like shit, but I'm bubbly and "happy" all day long
  • A gay politician who actively pursues legislation to limit the rights of homosexuals or a teacher who resents a student...
    • yet bends over backwards to provide an unfair advantage to that student

would be using "reaction formation" as an ego defense mechanism

A image thumb
116

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

  • Describe "Repression"
    • Give an example
       

REPRESSION

  • is an ego defense mechanism by which information is unconsciously pushed out of conscious awareness
  • While the individual may have no conscious awareness of the repressed memory, that memory will still affect conscious behavior

Examples:

  • Sexual frustration leads to porn addiction
  • An individual who was sexually abused as a child may report no memory of the abuse, yet they have difficulty in forming intimate relationships as an adult
  • Another example of repression might involve someone who nearly died in a car accident not remembering the incident itself, but always experiencing high levels of anxiety when driving in the future

A image thumb
117

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

  • Describe "Rationalization"
    • Give an example

RATIONALIZATION

  • involves creating excuses
    • ​...to justify something that is UNACCEPTABLE

Example:

  • A student who fails a class may claim that the class instructor was impossible to understand
  • A woman who was just dumped by the man of her dreams may claim that she was never really into him to begin with 

A image thumb
118

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

Describe the "SUPEREGO"

  • What realms does it operate in?
  • What is it responsible for?
  • Often called the "___________" portion of Freud's theory
  • How does the SUPEREGO affect the ID and EGO?
  • Is it present at birth?
  • What are its two components?

Q image thumb

SUPEREGO

Operates in the conscious, PRE-conscious and UNCONSCIOUS realms

  • Responsible for JUDGING action
    • ...based on internalized moral standards
      • obtained from parents and society
  • Often called the “perfectionist” portion of Freud’s personality theory

FURTHER SUPPRESSES IMPULSES of the ID 

  • ...and influences the EGO to be more IDEALISTIC than REALISTIC
  • Develops around age five

Two Components:

  1. the “conscience” 
  2. the “ego ideal

A image thumb
119

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

  • Describe the Rorschach Inkblot Test

Rorschach inkblot test

  • involves presentation of a series of inkblots to a test taker who is asked to describe what they see

The idea is that in interpreting an ambiguous image, the clinician will gain invaluable insight into the test taker’s unconscious motives and desires

  • Ex: Someone who is sexually repressed may see more sexualized images in the inkblot than others

120

Theories of Personality

  • Jung vs. Freud:
    • "EGO"

Freud

  • Conscious, preconscious, AND unconscious.

Jung

  • Conscious mind ONLY

121

Theories of Personality

  • Sigmund Frued's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

  • Define "Defense Mechanisms"
  • Name the 8 defense mechanisms to be familiar with for the MCAT

 

Freud theorized that as the EGO attempts to resolve anxiety between the ID (instinctual) and the SUPEREGO (Idealistic)

....it resorts to unconscious falsifications or distortions called "defense mechanisms" 

 

  1. Repression
  2. Regression
  3. Reaction Formation
  4. Denial
  5. Projection
  6. Displacement
  7. Rationalization
  8. Sublimation

122

Theories of Personality

  • Social Cognitive Personality Theories: 
    • Alfred Bandura

Describe the Bobo Doll Experiment

  • What were the 2 results of this experiment?

Q image thumb

Bobo Doll Experiment

  • Famous experiment in which Bandura exposed children to adults modeling aggressive and non-aggressive behavior
  • The aggressive adult models repeatedly punched, hit, kicked, and spoke violently to an inflatable “Bobo Doll.”
  • The non-aggressive models played quietly with non-aggressive toys
  • A control group was included with no models
  • Children were allowed to play in a similar room with the same toys after watching the models
  • Those exposed to the aggressive models mimicked the violent behavior toward the Bobo doll--
  • While those exposed to the non-aggressive model did not

RESULTS:

  • Boys were more aggressive than girls
  • Overall, children were more likely to model the behavior of a same-sex model
    • Girls were more likely to model the aggressive language they had seen
    • Boys were more likely to model the physical violence

A image thumb
123

Theories of Personality

  • Social Cognitive Personality Theories: 
    • Alfred Bandura
  • Define:
    • "Reciprocal Determinism" 
    • "Locus of Control"
      • ​ (Internal & External)

 

Q image thumb

Reciprocal Determinism

  • An individual, their behavior, AND their environment

​...affect one another

  • ....Rather than the environment exclusively influencing behavior

This suggests that individuals can mold the environment that influences their development

LOCUS OF CONTROL

  • One’s personal belief as to the degree to which one can control life events or outcomes

INTERNAL Locus of Control

  • I believe I primarily control and determine outcomes

EXTERNAL Locus of Control

  • I believe external events or influences beyond my control determine outcomes

124

Theories of Personality

  • Trait Personality Theories

Describe Raymond Cattell's theory

Q image thumb

RAYMOND CATTELL

  • Ranked large sample on 171 character traits
    • Used factor analysis to reduce this to 16 traits

Resulting “16-Personality Factor Questionnaire" (16PF) is widely-used

A image thumb
125

Theories of Personality

  • Trait Personality Theories

According to Gordon Allport, individuals must exhibit WHAT three basic traits or dispositions?

  • Describe them
  • Give examples

GORDON ALLPORT:

Individuals exhibit three basic traits or dispositions:

​Cardinal trait

  • This is the trait that dominates and shapes a person's behavior
  • These are the ruling passions/obsessions,
  • Ex:
    • A need for money, fame etc.

Central trait 

  • This is a general characteristic found in some degree in every person
  • These are the basic building blocks that shape most of our behavior
    • although they are not as overwhelming as Cardinal traits
  • Ex:
    • Honesty

Secondary trait 

  • These are characteristics seen only in certain circumstances (such as particular likes or dislikes that a very close friend may know)

  • They MUST be included to provide a complete picture of human complexity

  • Ex:

    • Getting nervous when speaking in front of a crowd

    • Becoming impatient while waiting in line

 

126

Theories of Personality

  • Trait Personality Theories

Identify the following descriptions as examples of cardinal, central, or secondary traits according to Allport’s Trait Theory of Personality:

  1. At his funeral, Daniel is described by multiple speakers as a true “Renaissance Man,” known for his many talents as an artist
  2. Michelle is not generally an anxious person, but feels anxiety when she gets locked outside of her apartment
  3. Mahatma Gandhi is known world-wide as a peacemaker
    • He is known in particular for his peaceful, non-violent protests against British rule in India and is called by many “The Father of Peace,”
  4. Sharon notices that her friend Becky is often anxious and in a hurry
    • She cannot stand to wait in traffic and gets very impatient when waiting in any line
  5. Jeffrey strives to be honest in all of his dealings and his friends and coworkers generally think of him as being honest

  1. Cardinal trait
  2. Secondary trait
  3. Cardinal trait
  4. Central trait
  5. Central trait

127

Theories of Personality

  • Trait Personality Theories

The PEN Model ⇒ (lead to) WHAT model?

  • Describe the 5 personality traits this model encompasses 
  • HINT: "O.C.E.A.N"

The PEN Model⇒“Big Five” or “Five-Factor Model of Personality” (McCrae & Costa):

  1. Openness to Experience
  2. Conscientiousness
  3. Extraversion
  4. Agreeableness
  5. Neuroticism

128

Theories of Personality

  • Trait Personality Theories

HANS and SYBIL EYSENCK

  • Developed the _-_-_ Model, which includes what 3 personality triats?
  • What model did THIS model lead to?  

 

HANS and SYBIL EYSENCK: The PEN Model

  • Psychoticism
  • Extraversion
  • Neuroticism

The PEN Model ⇒“Big Five” or “Five-Factor Model of Personality” (McCrae & Costa)
 

129

Theories of Personality

  • Situational Personality Theory

For each theorist, state whether they would be most likely to agree or to disagree with the SITUATIONAL approach to explaining behavior and why:

  • Sigmund Freud
  • Carl Jung
  • Gordon Allport
  • Albert Bandura (& other social cognitive-theorists)
  • B.F. Skinner

Sigmund Freud

  • Believed that conscious behavior was largely driven by the conflicts that existed between the various components of the unconscious mind and the ego
  • Freud would have expected the situation to have power (since the ego deals in reality), but the effect of the situation on any given behavior was certainly NOT a primary focus of Freud’s theories

Carl Jung

  • Jung’s focus on the power of the situation is reflected in the archetype of the persona
  • Jung believed that we often put on a good face for the world to see, yet that may or may not be reflective of the true self

Gordon Allport

  • Allows for the situation to affect behavior in his concept of secondary traits
    • By definition, these are patterns of behavior that may only be observed in a given situation or context

Albert Bandura (and other social-cognitive theorists) 

  • would have strongly adhered to the idea that the situation is a powerful influence in determining one’s behavior

B.F. Skinner

  • would argue that the situation is paramount to determining one’s behavior
    • because the given situation would determine which behaviors might be reinforced and/or punished

130

Theories of Personality

  • ​Who was Carl Jung?
    • What 4 things did he interpret DIFFERENTLY than Sigmund Freud?

CARL JUNG

  • A contemporary and supporter of Freud who later developed his own psychoanalytic perspective. Jung differed significantly from Freud in his interpretation of the following:

Had differing views than Freud wrt:

  1. Libido 
  2. Ego
  3. Unconscious
  4. Behavior

131

Theories of Personality

  • What do Biological Personality Theory and Behavioral Personality Theory have to say wrt personality?
    • Who is the "Father of Behaviorism?"

Biological Personality Theory

  • Personality is predominantly the result of:
    • the expression of genes
  • Personality traits are the result of:
    • heritable biological characteristics

Behavioral Personality Theory

  • Personality is:
    • the sum of those behaviors that have been reinforced over time

"Father of Behaviorism" = B.F. Skinner

132

Theories of Personality

  • Define "Situational Personality Theory"
    • What does it say personality is the result of?

Situational Personality Theory:

  • Personality (and behavior generally) is the result of external, situational factors
    • --Rather than internal traits or unconscious motivations

133

Understanding Psychological Disorders

  • Classifying Psychological Disorders: 
    • Describe:

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Volume 5 (DSM-5)

  • The DSM-5 is based on ____s only, not ____s or _____
  • How are disorders classified?

The official reference manual mental health professionals and physicians use to diagnose mental disorders in the United States

  • The DSM-5 is based on symptoms ONLY, not causes or treatment

Most disorders are:

  • a list of possible SYMPTOMS and
  • An exact criteria is predetermined for diagnosis
    • Ex: "DISORDER X= 3 or more of the following symptoms, persisting for a period of at least six months..."

134

Understanding Psychological Disorders

  • The Most Common Psychological Disorders
    • Name the 6 most common disorders
      • Give some examples if applicable

Listed in approximate decreasing order of one-year prevalence among adults in the United States

  1. Anxiety Disorders  (~ 18%)
    • GAD, SAD, Phobias, Panic Disorder
  2. Depressive Disorders (~ 10%)
    • MDD, Bipolar, Dysthymia
  3. Substance Use Disorders (~ 7%)
  4. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder,"PTSD" (~ 3.5%)
  5. Antisocial Personality Disorder, "APD"; (~ 1.5%)
  6. Schizophrenia (~ 1%)

135

Theories of Personality

  • Describe Jung’s Eight Cognitive Processes
    • ​How does this relate to the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (a widely used personality test) 

  • Jung’s Eight Cognitive Processes are the basis of the widely-used personality test, Myers-Briggs Type Inventory

Myers-Briggs adds a fourth dichotomy:

Judging vs. Perceiving

  • Each personality type is dominant in one of the two sides of each of the four dichotomies
    • resulting in sixteen different personality types:
      • E = Extroverted
      • I = Introverted
      • S = Sensing
      • N = Intuiting
      • T = Thinking
      • F = Feeling
      • J = Judging
      • P = Perceiving
  • Note: The lists that follow are for illustrative purposes to show the four-letter designations given to each personality type

DO NOT memorize all 16 abbreviations

  • You can translate them if you understand each dichotomy and its abbreviation

136

Psychological Disorders

  • Personality Disorders
    • Cluster A

Describe "Paranoid Personality Disorder"

  • What things can accompany it? 

Q image thumb

Paranoid Personality Disorder

THINK: "...and I'm overly paranoid Robe Lowe"

  • Characterized by DISRUPTIVE patterns of thought, behavior, and functioning

May be accompanied by:

  • pervasive distrust or suspicion

  • a feeling one is being lied to or exploited

  • a belief that friends and family are untrustworthy or unfaithful

  • attributing hidden meaning to everyday gestures or conversations, etc. 

A image thumb
137

Psychological Disorders

  • Personality Disorders
    • Cluster A

Describe "Schizoid Personality Disorder"

  • What things can accompany it? 

Q image thumb

Schizoid Personality Disorder

THINK: Clint Eastwood in Gran Torino

  • Characterized by DISRUPTIVE patterns of thought, behavior, and functioning

May be accompanied by:

  • severe detachment from others

  • little or no desire to form relationships

  • a sense of indifference to:

    • praise

    • affirmation

    • criticism, or

    • rejection, etc

  • These individuals rarely participate in fun or pleasurable activities

Are described by others as cold, uninterested, withdrawn, or aloof

A image thumb
138

Psychological Disorders

  • Personality Disorders
    • Cluster A

Describe "Schizotypal Personality Disorder"

  • What characterizes it?
  • What things can accompany it? 

Q image thumb

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

THINK: ECCENTRIC!

  • Characterized by DISTORTED patterns of thought, behavior, and functioning

May be accompanied by:

  • eccentric perceptions
  • thoughts or behaviors
  • “magical thinking”
  • reported ability to read minds or foretell the future
  • talking to oneself
  • difficulty forming relationships
  • severe social anxiety, etc. 

A image thumb
139

Psychological Disorders

  • What is a key difference b/t:
  • Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Histrionic Personality Disorder? 

(they are very similar in nature)

  • Individuals with BPD tend to be emotionally unstable and impulsive

...and threatening suicide or self-harm is COMMON

Poor Kerri Yockey :(

  • Although individuals with HPD tend to be very dramatic and manipulative, they tend NOT to threaten harm or suicide
  • They're dramatic & bitchy, but they're harmless

140

What does the neurotransmitter GABA do wrt stress & excitory responses?

What would a GABA agonist do?

What's an example of a GABA agonist?

 

GABA is a neurotransmitter that decreases stress and excitatory responses

So a GABA agonist should increase GABA

  • and thus reduce anxiety and stress

 

EX: ALCOHOL is a GABA agonist

141

ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh)

is found in the CNS and PNS

In the CNS, acetylcholine is involved in ______ and _________

  • Depletions of acetylcholine centrally is associated with...?

In the PNS, acetylcholine is the primary __________ of the _________ _______

  • ​Is also found in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ______ nervous system

ACETYLCHOLINE

  • is found in both the CNS and the PNS
    • In the CNS, acetylcholine is involved in arousal and attention
      • Depletions of acetylcholine centrally is associated with the memory deficits associated with Alzheimer’s disease
    • In the PNS, acetylcholine is the primary neurotransmitter of the neuromuscular junction
      • Is also found in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system

 

142

Where is DOPAMINE produced

SUBSTANTIA NEGRA

(part of Mesencephalon--midbrain)

A image thumb