Reactions Overview Flashcards Preview

ALTIUS > Reactions Overview > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reactions Overview Deck (20):
1

COMBUSTION OF AN ALKANE

...Is when you are reacting ____ with ____

to produce ____ 

Is when you are reacting SOMETHING 

with O2 

to produce CO2H2O and HEAT 

2

SYNTHESIS OF AN ALKANE FROM AN ALKENE

...Is when you are reacting ____ with ____ 

to produce ____ 

...Is when you are reacting an ALKENE 

with H2 IN THE PRESENCE OF A METAL CATALYST

to produce  AN ALKANE

 

(H2/Pd)

3

OXIDATION OF AN ALCOHOL

...Is when you are reacting ____ with ____ 

to produce ____ 

...Is when you are reacting AN ALCOHOL (1° or 2°) with an OXIDIZING AGENT

to produce EITHER KETONES (2°) or ALDEHEDYDES/COOHs (1°)

 

OXIDIZING AGENTS:

O3, Cr2O7, CrO4, KMnO4, Jones, Collins, PCC, PDC

4

REDUCTION SYNTHESIS OF AN ALCOHOL

...Is when you are reacting ____ with ____ 

to produce ____ 

...Is when you are reacting KETONES, ALDEHYDES, COOHs or ESTERS (PREVIOUSLY OXIDIZED ALCOHOLS)

with REDUCING AGENTS

to produce (reduced) ALCOHOLS

 

REDUCING AGENTS:

LiAlH4 (STRONGEST), NaBH4, H2/pressure

5

THE PINACOL REARRANGEMENT

...Is when you are reacting ____ with ____ 

to produce ____ 

 

Is when you are reacting A VIC-DIOL

with HOT ACID

to produce a KETONE or an ALDEHYDE

A image thumb
6

PROTECTION OF ALCOHOLS (FROM OXIDATION)

...Is when you are reacting ____ with ____ 

to produce ____ 

*What will RESTORE the ROH?*

 

...Is when you are reacting an ALCOHOL

with TMS or MOM

to produce RO-TMS or RO-MOM

This protects ROHs from oxidation while still allowing the reaction to occur with OTHER functional groups on the molecule 

  • ACIDIFICATION will remove TMS or MOM and restore the ROH

7

ALCOHOL REACTION WITH SOCl2 AND PBr3

Is when you are reacting ____ with ____ 

to produce ____ 

Is when you are reacting an ALCOHOL (ROH)

with SOCl2 or PBr3

to produce R-Cl or R-Br

8

FORMATION OF TOSYLATES / MESYLATES

Is when you are reacting ____ with ____ 

to produce ____ 

**WHY WOULD WE WANT TO USE A TOSYLATE OR MESYLATE?**

Is when you are reacting Tosyl-Cl (or Mesyl-Cl)

with an ALCOHOL (ROH)

to produce Tosyl-OR and HCl

Mesylates and Tosylates are desirable because they make very good leaving groups that will react readily with almost any nucleophile

9

DEHYDRATION OF AN ALCOHOL, A.K.A.

SYNTHESIS OF AN ALKENE

Is when you are reacting ____ with ____ 

to produce ____ 

Is when you are reacting an ALCOHOL

with an ACID

to produce WATER, and subsequently an ALKENE

 

WATER LEAVES, FORMING CCI

ELECTRONS COLLAPSE, FORMING DB

10

GRIGNARD SYNTHESIS

Is when you are reacting ____ with ____ 

to produce ____ 

Is when you are reacting a CARBONYL ***

with RMgX

to produce an ALCOHOL

WITH AN EXTENSION OF THE CARBON CHAIN!!!!

 

***YOU CAN ALSO DO THIS REACTION WITH ELECTROPHILIC DB'S SUCH AS:

C=N, CYANO GROUPS, S=O, AND N=O

A image thumb
11

HOFFMAN DEGRADATION

Is when you are reacting ____ with ____ 

to produce ____ 

  • THIS RXN _____S THE CARBON CHAIN
  • THIS RXN IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT ALLOWS YOU TO ADD ___ TO A ______ _____

REACTING A PRIMARY AMIDE

WITH STRONG, BASIC SOLUTIONS OF:

Cl2 OR Br2

TO PRODUCE A PRIMARY AMINE

  • This reaction SHORTENS the carbon chain
  • Rxn is important because it allows you to add an AMIDE to a TERTIARY CARBON

A image thumb
12

DECARBOXYLATION OF A  β-KETO CARBOXYLIC ACID

...Is when you are reacting ____ with ____

to produce ____ 

Q image thumb

Is when you are reacting  β-KETO CARBOXYLIC ACID 

with :B (A BASE)

to produce CO2 + A RESONANCE-STABILIZED CARBANION 

(ENOL ⇔KETO TAUTOMERS)

A image thumb
13

HALOGENATION OF AN ALDEHYDE OR KETONE

...Is when you are reacting ____ with ____ 

to form an ____ intermediate, and then reacting THAT intermediate with ___ to form ____

Is when you are reacting

AN α-HYDROGEN OF AN ALDEHYDE OR KETONE

with A BASE (ex: NaOH)

to form an ENOLATE intermediate

and then reacting THAT with X2 (ex: Br2

to form an α-HALOGENATED PRODUCT

 

14

REDUCTION SYSTHESIS OF AMINES

...Is when you are reacting ____ (2 options) with ____ 

to produce____ 

Is when you are reacting NITRO OR NITRILE GROUPS

with REDUCING AGENTS (LiAlH4 > NaBH4)

to produce PRIMARY AMINES

 

 

A image thumb
15

ACETOACETIC ESTER SYNTHESIS

...Is when you are reacting ____ with a  ____ 

to form an ____ intermediate, and then reacting THAT intermediate with ___ to form a ____

Is when you are reacting a β-KETO ESTER with A BASE   

to form a CARBANION intermediate

and then reacting THAT intermediate with an ALKYL HALIDE (RX) to form a KETONE

A base abstracts the acidic alpha hydrogen, leaving a carbanion
The carbanion attacks an alkyl halide (R-X), resulting in addition of the –R group to the alpha carbon
Hot acid during workup causes loss of the entire –COOR group

A image thumb
16

PINACOL REARRANGEMENT

Is when you are _________ing a ____

to produce a ____

via a ___shift

Is when you are PROTONATING

VIC DIOL (1,2-diol)

to produce a CARBONYL

via a METHYL SHIFT

 

A image thumb
17

ALDOL CONDENSATION

Is when you are reacting a ____

with an ______ or _____, which then attacks 

_________

to produce an _______

Is when you are reacting a BASE, (-OR)

with an ALDEHYDE OR KETONE 

which then attacks ANOTHER (!) ALDEHYDE OR KETONE

to produce an ALDOL

A image thumb
18

"SAPONIFICATION" (HYDROLYSIS OF AN ESTER)

Is when you are reacting ____ with a  ____ 

 to form an ____ and a _____ ____ ____

 

Is when you are reacting an ESTER

with a  HYDROXIDE ION (NaOH)

 to form an ALCOHOL 

and a CARBOXYLIC ACID SALT (Na+)

A image thumb
19

TRANSESTERIFICATION

Is when you are reacting a/n _____ with a/n _____,

producing a _______ _____

Is when you are reacting AN EXISTING ESTER 

with an ALCOHOL,

producing a DIFFERENT ESTER

A image thumb
20

GABRIEL SYNTHESIS

Is when you are reacting a ______ ___ with a/n _____ ______, producing a _____ _____

Is an UPGRADE over ALKYL AMIDE SYNTHESIS because?

Is when you are reacting a PHTHALIMIDE ION 

with an ALKYL HALIDE,

producing a PRIMARY AMINE

 

Is an UPGRADE because it avoids the side products that the you get doing doing Alkyl Amine Synthesis

(remember that AAS results in many side products b/c the resultant amine is still a good Nu: and can react AGAIN)

A image thumb