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0

Define "Social Constructionism"

  • Give an example 

WE create the world we live in, 

and the world we live in creates US

In other words:

Anything that is created is as a result of a social activity

Example:

  •  Technology built up by humans with certain values or beliefs

 

1

Reaction formation

Reacting the OPPOSITE WAY to how you REALLY feel

(Is a Defense Mechanism)

Ex: 

  • Reacting sarcastically (as if you DO know what it is) about something that you really know NOTHING about

Ex:

  • "What? You dont know about astrophysics? You're a moron! I know everything!!")

 

 

2

What's an example of a schema? ex: gender schema

Guys dont ask for directions schema≈model

3

What's an example of a script? ex: gender script

scripts are the actions of a schema

4

Apparent Weight=___-___

actual weight-buoyant force

5

Buoyant Force formula

Fs=pVg

6

From where in the cell can RNA be synthesized? (3)

-nucleus -ER -Gytoplasm

7

Passive Immunity results from receiving the antibody from...?

an outside source (ex: receiving an injection of antibodies to a specific antigen, or an infant receiving antibodies from mother's milk)

8

What enzyme(s) are found in the lumen of the small intestine?

Chymotrypsin

9

"wobble" in genetic code

AA's coded for by 3 bases ("codons") in mRNA. A single AA may correspond to several different codons. Third base is BY FAR the most common variation. ex: GGG,GGC most likely code for the same AA.

10

What makes a good vaccine "Target?"why?

a membrane protein, so that antibodies in bloodstream can access the protein and form an immune response to them.

11

A point mutation will like change the ___ structure of a protein by changing what?

primary structure of a protein, by changing an AA in the sequence.

12

What is "oligomerization?" What is an example?

formation of an oligomer from a monomer. ex: alpha and ß subunits of Hb

13

What is an "oligomer?"

a cpd intermediate b/t a monomer and a polymer, normally having a specified number of units between 5 and 100

14

A _____ at the 5' position is required for RNA splicing to occur. What happens if you have a different NT?

Guanine. If you had a different NT, the exon and intron wouldnt get cleaved, and the intron wont be spliced out from the mRNA transcript

15

E and Z stereochemistry only apply to?

R groups around double bonds

16

How many Carbons in Lysine?

6 (Lysine has 6 letters)

17

If Keq=1, what is ∆G?

∆G=0

18

∆G=? What will you always get taking the log of a (positive) decimal less than 1?

∆G= -RTln(Keq). taking the log of a positive decimal that's greater than 1 always gives you a NEGATIVE number. This would make ∆G positive, since there's a (-) before R

19

  • In chemistry experiements, what does "reflux" mean?

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20

  • Pendulum formula

  • L=length of wire
  • T=period
    • is the INVERSE of frequence, 1/f

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21

  • Compare the Hippocampus and the Amygdala

  • Hippocampus
    • is responsible for the processing and storage of short-term memory.
  • Amygdala
    • is responsible for emotions, moods, and other functions related to depression and anxiety.

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22

  • Periodic trends
    • Compare Electronegativity and Ionization Energy 

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23

  • Draw Fisher Projections for: 
    • D- and L- Glyceraldehyde
      • Where are COOH and R groups going to be located?
        • What happens to the D/L config if the only thing you swap is the location of COOH & R groups?

  • COOH- and R groups are on TOP and BOTTOM
  • If you swap their positions, it changes D to L and vice versa
    • What was "D" is now "L"

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24

  • Fischer Projections
    • What is the STEREOCHEMISTRY of Fischer projections?

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25

  • What does a "Schiff Base" look like? 

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26

  • How many stereoisomers in Penicillin G?

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  • 23=8

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27

Describe the CENTRAL DOGMA in Eukaryotic cells

  • How do Retroviruses VIOLATE this?

DNA⇒RNA⇒Proteins

In eukaryotes (organisms with a nuclear membrane):

  • DNA undergoes replication and transcription in the nucleus, and proteins are made in the cytoplasm

RNA must therefore travel across the nuclear membrane before it undergoes translation

  • This means that  transcription and translation are PHYSICALLY SEPARATED
  • The primary transcript, heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA), undergoes extensive post-transcriptional processing to make:
    • a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule
      • ...that can pass through the nuclear membrane

Retro viruses (e.g., HIV) have RNA as their genetic material

  • When infecting host cells, retroviruses use an enzyme called "reverse transcriptase"
    • to produce DNA which is then inserted into the host's DNA

∴, RNA⇒DNA (Violates Central Dogma)

 

28

  • In a NEURON, where can HISTONES be found?

  • In the SOMA 
    • "Soma-" means "body"
  • The Soma is the main portion of the neuron, where the nucleus is
    • ∴ DNA is there
    • ∴ Histones are there as well

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29

  • DNA has a _____ charge, and Histones have a_____ charge

  • How does this affect HELICASE?

  • DNA has a NEGATIVE charge
  • Histones have a POSITIVE charge

Histones make DNA more neutral, and this allows Helicase to get in an unzip the DNA strands

30

When you see "Methylation," think?

INACTIVATION!

31

  • Phosphatase: ____ phosphate group

  • Kinase: ____ phosphate group

Phosphatase 

  • REMOVES phosphate ghroup

Kinase 

  • ADDS phosphate group

32

  • Insulin vs. Glucagon
    • Which is ANABOLIC?
    • Which is CATABOLIC?

Insulin is ANABOLIC

  • (builds up things)

Glucagon is CATABOLIC

  • (breaks things down) 

33

  • HIGH affinity transporters are able to uptake their respective molecules at....?

    • In other words when the thing they are transporting is...?

  • ...at LOW CONCENTRATIONS

    • aka when the thing they are transporting is SCARCE!

34

What does a Lineweaver Burk plot look like for: 

COMPETITIVE Inhibition

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35

What does a Lineweaver Burk plot look like for: 

UNCOMPETITIVE  Inhibition

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36

What does a Lineweaver Burk plot look like for: 

NONCOMPETITIVE Inhibition

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37

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

 

O-

  • Donating
  • STRONGLY activating

 

38

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-NR2

  • Donating
  • STRONGLY activating

39

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-NH(Amines)

  • Donating
  • STRONGLY activating

40

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-OH ("Phenol groups" when attached to a ring)

  • Donating
  • STRONGLY activating

41

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-OR (Ethers)

  • Donating
  • STRONGLY activating

42

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-NHCOR (Amides)

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  • Donating
  • MODERATELY activating

43

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-OCOR (Esters)

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  • Donating
  • MODERATELY activating

44

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-R (Alkyl groups)

THINK: Methyl Group, CH3

  • Donating
  • WEAKLY activating

45

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-Ph 

  • Donating
  • WEAKLY activating

46

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

CH=CR(Vinyl groups)

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  • Donating
  • WEAKLY activating

47

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-H

  • NEITHER electron donating NOR withdrawing

is used as a reference point

  • Likewise, it is neither ring activating nor deactivating (is NEUTRAL)

48

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-X (Halides)

  • Withdrawing
  • WEAKLY Deactivating

49

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-COH (Aldehydes)

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  • Withdrawing
  • MODERATELY deactivating

50

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-COR (Ketones)

  • Withdrawing
  • MODERATELY deactivating

51

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-COOR (Esters)

  • Withdrawing
  • MODERATELY deactivating

52

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-COOH (Carboxylic Acid)

  • Withdrawing
  • MODERATELY deactivating

53

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-CF​(Trihalides)

  • Withdrawing
  • STRONGLY deactivating!

54

Is the following:

  • Electron Donating OR Withdrawing?
  • Ring Activating OR Deactivating?
    • Is it strongly, moderately, weakly, etc.

-:CN (Cyano groups)

  • Withdrawing
  • STRONGLY deactivating! 

55

Describe the FORMATION CONSTANT, Kf

  • What is it a MEASURE of?
  • Give its FORMULA

Is a measure of the STRENGTH OF THE INTERACTION b/t:

Reagents that come together to FORM the complex

 

K= [products] / [reactants]

56

Chromatography

  • Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC)
    • (HIC) relies on high concentrations of WHAT to enhance or strengthen hydroPHOBIC interactions?

Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) relies on high SALT CONCENTRATIONS

to enhance or strengthen

hydroPHOBIC interactions

 

Therefore, decreasing the salt concentration weakens these interactions, causing the protein to elute from the column

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