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Flashcards in Biology 3 Deck (126):

  • Immune System
    • Define Acquired Immunity

  • A specific response to one particular virus, bacteria or other pathogen based upon prior exposure.
  • There are two types of acquired immunity:
    1. humoral
    2. cell-mediated.


  • Digestive System
    • Stomach
      • Chief Cells

  • Make and secrete the zymogen PEPSINOGEN (into gastric pits/stomach lumen)

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  • Integumentary System
    • Functions
    • What parts of the body does this system include?

  • Protection against abrasion
  • physical barrier to pathogens
  • vitamin D synthesis
  • insulation/cushioning (due to subcutaneous fat)
  • prevention of water-loss
  • temperature regulation.


  • ​Includes the hair, nails, skin, and the oil and sweat glands located within the sk


  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Describe Skeletal Muscle anatomy

  • A muscle group, such as the bicep, is a bundle of many fasciculi.
    • Each fascicle is a bundle of many long, tubular cells
      • called muscle fibers.
  • Around each muscle cell is a specialized cell membrane
    • ...called the sarcolemma.
  • Inside each muscle cell are many nuclei (multinucleate).
  • Nearly the entire volume of each cell is filled with smaller round tubes called myofibrils.
    • Myofibrils are long bundles of proteins mainly composed of actin and myosin fibers interconnected in repeating units
      • ...called sarcomeres.
    • Bundles of myofibrils are interwoven among portions of the muscle cell’s endoplasmic reticulum
      • called the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
  • It is the sarcoplasmic reticulum that
    • stores and
    • releases Ca2+
      • to control the contraction process 

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Integumentary System

  • Skin
    • Dermis vs. Epidermis
      • What is the Epidermis mostly made up of?
      • What 5 things comprise the Dermis?
      • What is the dermis an example of?


  • Is avascular and made up of mostly dead or dying, keratinized cells


  • Contains:
    1. blood vessels
    2. hair follicles
    3. sebaceous glands (oil)
    4. sudoriferous glands (sweat)
    5. nerve endings

The dermis is an example of CONNECTIVE TISSUE!


  • Digestive System
    • Function=?

  • To separate food molecules from each other (i.e., physical digestion) and break up those molecules into their monomers for absorption (i.e., chemical digestion).
  • These monomers are then used for both energy and as a source of carbon chains and amino acids.


  • Immune System
    • Acquired Immunity
      • Humoral Immunity
        • Describe the Secondary response

  • the immune system’s response to that same pathogen DURING SUBSEQUENT EXPOSURES


  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Skeletal Muscle
      • The Sarcomere
        • Describe the arrival of the Action Potential

  • The junction between a skeletal muscle and a motor (i.e., somatic) nerve is called the neuromuscular junction.
  • Acetylcholine (ACh) is the ONLY neurotransmitter used at neuromuscular junctions.
  • When Ach is released from the motor neuron at the neuromusclular junction
    • action potential is initiated.
  • The action potential will then spread along the muscle cell sarcolemma and down specialized invaginations of the sarcolemma
    • called T-tubules
      • that dive deep into the muscle cell
        • causing the release of Ca2+

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  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Smooth Muscle
      • Characteristics

  • Characteristics
    • involuntary, non-striated, one nucleus
  • Smooth muscle is what controls the gut, viscera, blood vessels, etc.


  • Reproductive System
    • Menstrual Cycle
      • Describe Fertilization

  •  Fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tubes.
  • Sperm and egg, traveling toward one another, generally meet here.
  • Implantation normally occurs in the uterus, but can occur in the fallopian tubes, leading to a “tubal” or “ectopic” pregnancy
    • This is bad-- only the uterus can support a growing fetus with nutrients
    • Ectopic pregnancies can lead to miscarriages


  • Digestive System
    • Stomach
      • Functions?

  • Functions include:
    • food storage
    • mixing
    • Is the first site of protein digestion
  • Without an adequate stomach, food moves too fast through the digestive system
    • resulting in incomplete digestion and absorption.


  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Cardiac Muscle
      • Provide a conceptual definition for the term “autorhythmic.”
      • Do heart muscle cells contract in response to innervation by a NERVE?

The SA node acts like a natural pacemaker for the heart.

The action potential for each heart beat ORIGINATES IN THE SA NODE

NOT with a nerve from the nervous system.

Nerves do innervate the heart, but they only regulate its rhythm up or down—they do not initiate that rhythm.

  • The vagus nerve (parasympathetic) slows the heart rate, and sympathetic nerves increase heart rate.


  • Reproductive System
    • Describe The Egg

  • Eggs are the female gametes.
    • Singular scientific name is "ova"
    • Plural form is "ovum"
    • An immature egg is called an "oocyte"

  • An egg begins meiosis as a germ line cell in the ovary of a female fetus
  • Is arrested at Prophase I of Meiosis at birth.
  • Not until puberty and menstruation is Meiosis I completed 
    • Even then, all cells remain in this arrested state
      • ...except for those that begin maturing in a follicle in preparation for ovulation.
  • Meiosis II is not completed until after the sperm fertilizes the ovum.

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  • Digestive System
    • Epiglottis
      • Describe 

  • This is the organ that caused the debunking of the “honey soothes the vocal chords” myth discussed in the previous lesson 
  • This u-shaped flap of cartilage and membrane is oriented nearly vertical in its default position
    • This allows air to proceed past it and into the trachea
  • During the act of swallowing, this flap folds down over the opening to the portion of the larynx that contains the “voicebox” and trachea
    • Disallowing food down the trachea and allowing food down the esophagus

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  • Digestive System
    • Stomach
      • Name the 4 Stomach Lining Cell Types

  1. Mucous Neck Cells
  2. Chief Cells
  3. Parietal Cells
  4. G-cells 


  • Immune System
    • Describe the Imflammatory Response

  • First, macrophages, mast cells and dendritic cells are residents of nearly ALL tissues.
  • When damage is caused
    • by injury, bacterial invasion, etc.
  • Mast Cells & Dendritic cells are activated to release chemicals such as:
    • histamines
    • leukotrienes, and
    • prostaglandins
  • These chemicals increase:
    • blood flow to the injury site
      • creating heat and redness.
    • permeability of veins and lymph vessels
      • This causes plasma and interstitial fluid to flood the infection site
        • resulting in swelling (a.k.a., edema).
  • This swelling and increase in chemicals lead to:
    • the pain associated with inflammation as well.
  • Neutrophils are recruited via chemotaxis in very large numbers to the inflammation site. 

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  • The Gallbladder
    • Define
    • What is its relation with Bile? 
    • What does Bile do?
    • Is Bile's action an example of physical or chemical digestion? 

  • Stores and concentrates bile, but does NOT produce bile.
    • Bile is produced IN THE LIVER
  • Bile emulsifies fats
    • i.e., separates fat molecules from each other
      • increasing the surface area available for enzymatic digestion
  • Bile emulsifies fats, but it does not break any bonds
    • therefore it is an example of physical rather than chemical digestion


  • Immune System
    • Tissues of the Immune Sys
      • Thymus

  • Location where T-lymphocytes (a.k.a., T cells):
    • Acquire immunocompetency
    • Differentiate, and
    • Mature

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Acquired Immunity

  • Humoral Immunity
    • Describe B-cells
      • Where do they develop?
      • Where do they mature?
      • Each B-cell produces only ONE of a certain kind of _____ ______ on its ______
        • What is this thing called?

When you see “B-cells” or “antibody,” THINK of humoral immunity

B-cells develop in

  • bone marrow

mature in:

  • Bone marrow, or
  • lymph tissues

Each B-cell produces only ONE of a certain kind of protein receptor on its membrane

called an antibody (a.k.a., immunoglobulin)

Each antibody will recognize and bind with only one foreign particle

called an antigen


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  • Bone
    • Define:
      • Hematopoeisis
      • red bone marrow
      • yellow bone marrow
      • spongy bone
      • compact bone

  • Hematopoiesis
    • is the name given to the formation and differentiation of blood cells in the bone marrow.  
  • Red bone marrow
    • Hematopoesis occurs in the red bone marrow that fills the pockets of spongy bone.
    • Hematopoiesis does NOT occur in the yellow bone marrow that fills the medullary cavity of long bones.
  • Yellow bone marrow
    • consists mostly of fat.
  • Spongy bone
    • contains many open spaces, formed by the interwoven trabeculae.
      • These spaces are filled with red bone marrow
    • ​​The interior of flat and irregular bones, as well as the bulbous ends of the long bones, is filled with spongy bone
  • Compact bone
    • Is the dense bone that surrounds the outside of all bones, and constitutes the shafts of long bones.
    • is many times more compact than spongy bone
    • It is organized into orderly units called osteons
    • the only spaces it contains are:
      • Haversion canals, and 
      • canaliculi. 

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Digestion of Lipids

  • Where does it BEGIN & where is it COMPLETE by?
    • In the place where digestion begins, what 2 things do lipids encounter? 
  • Do these things enter the bloodstream or lacteal?

  • In order to be transported across the membrane, _______s are broken down to ___

    • WHAT happens once they're across the membrane?

  •  BEGINS in the small intestine (duodenum)  
  • COMPLETE by the end of the small intestine
  • Lipids enter the LACTEALS (NOT the blood stream)


Digestion of lipids CANNOT begin prior to their reaching the small intestine--

  • where they encounter bile and lipase

Triglycerides are broken down to fatty acids, transported across the membrane, then reformed into triglycerides




  • Immune System
    • Tissues of the Immune System
      • Spleen

  • Somewhat analogous to a lymph node that filters blood instead of lymph
  • high concentration of:
    • leukocytes (WBCs)
    • platelets
  • Storage of a considerable amount of blood
    • ...that can help combat hemorrhagic shock
  • Breaks down and recycles parts of old erythrocytes (RBCs)

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  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Functions

  • Movement
  • support and stabilization
  • generation of heat
  • aide to circulation
  • maintenance of homeostasis. 


  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Cardiac Muscle
      • What do both cardiac & skeletal muscle utilize?
      • What is in high [ ] in cardiac muscle? 
      • How are cardiac muscle cells connected? 
      • What's one difference b/t skeletal & cardiac muscle cells? 

  •  Like skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle utilizes myoglobin
  • It also contains very large numbers of mitochondria to prevent fatigue
  • Cardiac muscle cells/fibers are connected by intercalated discs containing gap junctions.
    • It is through these junctions that the ions used to initiate action potential pass effectively making the heart muscle cells into a functional syncitium.
      • Allowing them to act as a single unit.
  • Unlike skeletal muscle cells, cardiac cells continue dividing after differentiation

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  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Skeletal Muscle
      • The Sarcomere
        • Following contraction, is calcium pumped into, or out of, the SR?

  • Contraction occurs when calcium is present
  • After contraction is complete, calcium must be actively transported back INTO the sarcoplasmic reticulum and sequestered there until the next contraction.
  • The myofibrils are NOT located inside the sarcoplasmic reticulum
  • Some students seem to have developed the idea that they were, due to the use of phrases such as: “the sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounds each myofibril.”
    • This is true, an extensive network of SR does “wrap around” each myofibril, but the myofibrils are not INSIDE of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
    • Compare this to wrapping your gloved hand around a ball.
    • The glove could be said to be “around” the ball, but the ball is clearly not INSIDE of the glove.
    • It can be said that the myofibrils are inside of the sarcolemma (i.e., muscle cell membrane) and surrounded by sarcoplasm.


  • Immune System
    • Describe:
      • macrophages
      • neutrophils
      • eosinophils
      • basophils
      • mast cells 

  • Macrophages
    • white blood cells, the mature form of a monocyte.
    • They phagocytize ("engulf"):
      • pathogens
      • cellular debris
    • Participate in INNATE IMMUNITY by:
      • their non-specific engulfing of foreign material
    • Participate in ACQUIRED IMMUNITY by:
      • present antigens from the pathogens they consume on their cell membrane,
      • which are recognized by B and T cells
  • Neutrophils
    • are one of three kinds of granulocytes
    • are phagocytes that are recruited to areas of infection and inflammation by chemotaxis.
    • They live for only about 5 days, but are the most abundant of all white blood cells.
      • The pus created at a wound is mostly dead neutrophils.
  • Eosinophils
    • are recruited to areas of parasitic invasion,
      • particularly multicellular parasites
    • where they release their granules containing peroxidases and other enzymes that digest tissue.
    • This would destroy the pathogen but could also destroy host tissue.
    • Note that ALL granulocytes:
      • are shortlived and
      • do not reside permanently in the tissues.
      • circulate in the blood
      • are recruited to areas of infection/inflammation.


  • ​are the least common white blood cell.
  • Their granules contain mostly histamine
    • which they release along with other chemicals when activated.
  • These chemicals promote inflammation and are integral in the allergic response
    • ∴ many think of basophils as roughly associated with allergies.
  • Mast cells 
    • contrary to granulocytes, are permanent resident cells within many tissues.
    • They are activated by allergens and other antigens to:
      • release histamine and
      • other chemical mediators.
    • They are usually associated with severe allergic reactions
      • including anaphylactic shock.

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  • Immune System
    • Acquired Immunity
      •  Describe Cell-Mediated Immunity

  • INVOLVES T-CELLS (T-Lymphocytes)
  • When you see T-cells, THINK of cell-mediated immunity
  • T-cells are made in the bone marrow like B-cells, but mature in the thymus.
  • T-cells have receptor proteins embedded in their cell membrane.
  • Unlike B-cells, they never produce free antibodies.
    • Instead, they are “tested” in the thymus against the host’s own membrane proteins (called “self-antigens”)
    • All T-cells matching a self-protein are destroyed, leaving only cells that will recognize invaders.
    • T-cells that pass this test will differentiate into one of the T-cell types previously described in this lesson.


  • Pancreas
    • Describe the function of the 6 digestive enzymes it secretes:
      • Trypsin
      • Chymotrypsin
      • Pancreatic amylase
      • Lipase
      • Ribonuclease
      • Deoxyribonuclease

  • Trypsin and chymotrypsin
    • are both proteases.
    • Each enzyme cuts proteins at its own specific amino acid sequence.
  • Pancreatic amylase
    • catalyzes the hydrolysis of carbohydrates.
  • Lipase
    • catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats.
  • Ribonuclease
    • catalyze the hydrolysis of RNA
  • Deoxyribonuclease
    • catalyzes the hydrolysis of DNA 


  • ​Some students find this (ribo & deoxyribonucleases) odd, thinking “Who eats DNA and RNA?”
  • While its true we don’t think of either as a food group, anything made of living cells—plant, fungi, animal, etc.--will contain both of these polynucleotides


  • Reproductive System
    • Sperm
      • Ejaculation Pathway
        •  Describe the specific purpose of each substance secreted into the ejaculate by the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral gland.

  • Seminal Vesicles
    • During ejaculation the first addition to the ejaculate comes from the seminal vesicles.
    • They release the majority of the fluids that make up semen
      • including fructose and alkaline fluids that make the semen BASIC.
    • The alkaline nature of semen
      • helps neutralize the acidic environment of the vagina 
    • fructose
      • provides nutrients for the sperm
    • The vas deferens continues into the prostate gland, which secretes a milky white fluid that is slightly acidic and contains proteases.
  • Prostate Gland
    • The prostate gland secretions play a protective role, as sperm have been shown to have longer survival rates and better protection of their genetic material in the presence of prostate secretions as compared to without them.
    • The vas deferens then dumps its contents into the urethra where it passes the bulbourethral glands (a.k.a., Cowper’s glands).
    • The bulbourethral glands do not add fluids to the ejaculate at this point.
  • Bulbourethral Gland
    • They secrete a fluid called pre-ejaculate that lubricates and neutralizes any acidic urine in the urethra prior to the arrival of the other semen components.
    • The term semen refers to the entire ejaculate with all contributed fluids plus the sperm


  • Digestive System
    • Stomach
      • G-cells
        • Is gastrin a peptide, a steroid, or a tyrosine derivative?
        • Is gastrin likely to bind at a membrane receptor?
          • If so, where would you expect that receptor to be located?

  • Gastrin is a peptide hormone
    • Therefore, we would expect it to be soluble in blood without a carrier molecule and to...
    • Require a membrane receptor because it cannot dissolve through the non-polar interior of the bi-layer membrane


  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Skeletal Muscle anatomy
      • Diagram the following:
        • fasciculi
        • muscle fibers
        • sarcolemma
        • myofibrils
        • sarcomeres
        • sarcoplasmic reticulum

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  • Immune System
    • Tissues of the Immune Sys
      • Bone Marrow

  • All erythrocytes and leukocytes are made in the red bone marrow via hematopoiesis
  • Yellow bone marrow is primarily adipose tissue and does NOT produce blood cells.
  • B lymphocytes mature in the bone marrow
  • T lymphocytes migrate to the thymus to mature.


  • Immune System
    • Acquired Immunity

    • self-attack of diseased cells  
    • antibodies and primary/secondary response


  • Integumentary System
    • Skin
      • Describe the role of skin in thermoregulation

  1. Blood vessels closer to the surface of the skin dilate when heat needs to be released and constrict when heat needs to be retained.
    • Blushing is the result of the dilation of these superficial blood vessels.
  2. Arrector pili muscles cause erection of hair follicles (resulting in “goose bumps”), that traps an insulating layer of air next to the skin
    • Contraction of Arrector pili muscles can also generate a small amount of heat.
  3. Subcutaneous fat provides insulation.
  4. Sweating, followed by evaporation of that sweat, carries away a significant amount of heat due to the high heat of vaporization of water and its high specific heat capacity.


  • Bone
    • Functions 

  • Physical support and movement
  • Protection of vital structures
  • Mineral storage
  • Regulation of:
    • blood mineral concentration
    • blood cell formation


  • Large Intestine
    • When you see "Large Intestine," think:

  • “water absorption” or “vitamin absorption”
  • In addition to absorbing vitamins from food, the large intestine also absorbs some vitamins produced by beneficial symbiotic E. Coli bacteria that live in the large intestine
    • (e.g., vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, and B12). 


  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Skeletal Muscle
      • What are some important things that skeletal muscle does for the body?

  • Skeletal muscles store large amounts of glycogen
  • They also require a lot of oxygen and thus have THEIR OWN oxygen storage molecule, myoglobin.
    • Myoglobin is basically one subunit of a hemoglobin molecule, capable of holding one O2 molecule.
  • Mature (differentiated) skeletal muscle cells are frozen in Go phase and do not divide (similar to neurons)


  • Bone
    • Skeletal Structure
      • What is Hydroxyapatite?


  • Hydroxyapatite is an inorganic compound of:
    • calcium 
    • phosphate
      • (PO43-)
    • hydroxide
      • (OH-)
  • Is the mineral matrix responsible for a bone’s strength
  • Is the form in which most all of the body’s calcium is stored

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  • Large Intestine
    • The relationship between humans and the E. Coli in the colon is an example of what type of inter-species relationship? 

  • Mutualism
  • Recall that mutualism is a form of symbiosis where both participants benefit.
    • The bacteria benefit by consuming the food in our intestines
    • We benefit because the bacteria produce vitamins that we absorb.


  • Digestion
    • Describe  
      • Colon (4 parts)
        • ascending
        • transverse
        • descending
        • sigmoid 
      • Rectum

  • Colon
    • rises upward along the right wall of the abdomen
      • ascending colon
    • traverses across the abdomen
      • transverse colon
    • descends along the left wall
      • descending colon
  • The final segment of the colon is somewhat twisted
    • sigmoid colon.
  • The primary function of the colon is:
    • the absorption of water and vitamins.
  • The colon contains resident commensal bacteria that secrete:
    • vitamin K
    • thiamin
    • riboflavin
    • vitamin B12
  • Rectum
    • the final segment of the large intestine
    • Functions:
      • connects to the anus
      • stores feces.

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  • Liver
    • In reponse to high/low glucose levels, the Panc reas secretes what 2 hormones? 
    • What do they generally do IN THE LIVER?
    • How else can the liver produce glucose? 
    • What is the name of the process when the liver produces new glucose? 

  • In response to low blood glucose levels alpha cells in the pancreas secrete glucagon.
    • Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis in the liver—the breakdown of glycogen stored in the liver to form free glucose for release into the blood.
  • In contrast, high blood glucose levels stimulate beta cells in the pancreas to secrete insulin.
    • Insulin stimulates glycogenesis in the liver—the synthesis of glycogen for storage in the liver.
    • Insulin also stimulates the uptake of glucose from the blood into the cells.
  • Finally, the liver also makes glucose out of lactate, glycerol, amino acids, and some TCA cycle intermediates. 
  • Liver producing new glucose=GLUCONEOGENESIS


  • Digestion
    • Describe
      • Pepsin
      • Small Intestine
        • duodenum
        • jejunum
        • ileum

  •  Pepsin catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins.
    • The partially digested food mix, now referred to as chyme, passes through the pyloric sphincter and into the upper portion of the small intestine
      • called the duodenum.
  • The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct both dump into the duodenum.
    • As a result, the duodenum receives:
      • bile from the liver/gallbladder
      • a bicarbonate rich solution
      • six digestive enzymes from the pancreas
  • The chyme progresses through the small intestine to its middle section,
    • called the jejunum,
  • ...and then to the final section,
    • called the ileum.
  • There are no distinct boundaries marking these three sections
  • Most digestion occurs in the duodenum
  • most absorption (of food molecules, not water) occurs in the jejunum and ileum

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  • Immune System
    • Acquired Immunity
      • Describe Antigen Presentation

  • Antigen presentation
    • the process by which a cell that has engulfed an antigen or microbe, (via receptor-mediated endocytosis or phagocytosis) takes protein portions of that microbe or antigen and “presents” them on MHC (Major Histocompatability Complex) proteins embedded in its own cell membrane for other cells to “see.”
  • Macrophages, dendritic cells, and B-cells can all “present” antigens
  • (Note: Other cells types can also “present” to a small extent, but they do not play a major role in immune system function)


  • Bone
    • Skeletal Structure
      • Name the 4 Bone Types

  1. Long bones
    • (e.g., femur, humerus)
  2. Short bones
    • (e.g., tarsals, carpals)
  3. Flat bones
    • (i.e., skull, sternum)
  4. Irregular bones
    • (e.g., hip, vertebrae)

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  • Immune System
    • Define Innate Immunity

  • The non-specific attack of pathogens.
  • All forms of innate immunity are present at birth
  • NOT acquired in ANY WAY


  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Smooth Muscle
      • Describe the difference between single unit (a.k.a., “unitary” or “visceral”), and multi-unit smooth muscle types

  • Unitary (or single-unit) smooth muscle
    • is group of smooth muscle fibers that are innervated by a single nerve and contract simultaneously as a single group.
    • These are the most common smooth muscle unit
    • Are found in :
      • most organs
      • around most blood vessels
      • the digestive tract, etc.
  • Multi-unit smooth muscle
    • innervated by multiple nerves and does not act as a single unit.
      • This allows for more precise control
        • remember, however, that all smooth muscle is involuntary, so it is not conscious control
    • Multi-unit smooth muscle is quite rare.
      • It is found in some of the larger vessels such as:
        • the aorta
        • in the retina of the eye

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  • Digestive System
    • Stomach
      • Parietal Cells

  • Secrete HCl (into gastric pits/stomach lumen).
  • HCl is responsible for the extreme acidity (pH = 2) of the stomach and for the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin, the ACTIVE FORM of the enzyme.

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  • Reproductive System
    • Menstrual Cycle
      •  What portion of the menstrual cycle illustrates a positive feedback mechanism?

  • Around day 14 of the menstrual cycle high estrogen levels stimulate a rapid increase in luteinizing hormone (LH), a good example of a positive feedback mechanism.
    • This does not happen during other stages of the cycle where LH stimulates estrogen, and estrogen provides negative feedback to the hypothalamus inhibiting further LH secretion (i.e., classic negative feedback loop).
    • However, as mid-cycle approaches estrogen levels provide positive feedback to the hypothalamus, stimulating it to secrete more LH, which in turn stimulates the production of more estrogen.
      • This causes the “LH surge,” which results in ovulation. 


  • Digestive System
    • Stomach
      • What prevents the tissues lining the stomach from being digested by pepsin?

  • The lining cells of the stomach are protected by a thick layer of mucus secreted by the mucus cells that line the gastric pits (one of four cells found there)


  • Bone
    •  Describe the 2 hormones that regulate bone cells.
    • Which hormones affect which cells and in what specific ways?


    • Remember that “calcitonin tones your bones.”

    • When blood levels are above normal calcitonin inhibits osteoclast activity

    • Osteoblast activity continues and thereby a net increase in bone structure results.

      • The calcium used by osteoblasts to build new bone matrix comes from the blood 

∴ blood calcium levels decrease

    • Parathyroid hormone has the opposite effect 

      • Parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoclast activity

        • resulting in the breakdown of bone matrix and release of calcium into the blood

      • As a result, blood calcium levels rise


  • ​The two hormones also have predictable impacts on the absorption of calcium at the gut and the reabsorption of calcium in the kidney


  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Skeletal Muscle
      • The Sarcomere
        • The Sliding Filament Mechanism

  • Myosin filaments contain bead-like heads
    • also called arms or cross-bridges 
  • The default, low-energy position for these heads is BENT 
  • In between contractions, ATP hydrolysis (ATP ⇒ ADP + Pi) is used to provide the energy to straighten-out, or “cock”, these myosin heads into the high-energy, straight position.
  • Regardless of which position the myosin heads are in (straight or bent):
    •  they are attracted to, and bind readily with, their neighboring actin filaments.
  • The only reason they are not bound continuously is a protein molecule called TROPOMYOSIN,
    • which covers the myosin binding site on the actin filament.
    • Tropomyosin is “clamped” into position by another protein,
      • troponin
  • When calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum it binds to troponin
    • releasing the “clamp” and freeing the binding site.
  • Myosin will then immediately bind to actin.
    • Recall that the myosin heads are still in their high-energy, straight position.
  • After binding, the myosin heads release ADP and Pi
    • ATP is NOT hydrolyzed into ADP and Pi. 
      • This already occurred as the heads were cocked into the straight position
  • The small amount of energy linked to this dissociation is enough to “pull the trigger,” allowing the heads to relax back to their bent position.
  • Because they are still bound, they drag the actin filaments with them
    • This is the "POWER STROKE" associated with contraction
      • After the power stroke, ATP binds to the myosin head again
        • facilitating its release from the actin filament.
    • Tropomyosin immediately re-covers the myosin binding site.
  • Finally, the attached ATP is hydrolyzed
    • providing the necessary energy to push the head back into the high-energy straight, or “cocked,” position.

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  • Digestion of Carbohydrates
    • Describe how Carbohydrates are digested 

  •  Digestion begins in the mouth
    • with salivary amylase
  • Digestion is complete by the end of the small intestine.
  • In the small Intestine:
    • Carbohydrates are broken down entirely to their monomers (e.g., glucose, fructose, etc.) before absorption 
    • They enter the blood stream (NOT the lacteal) and
    • Travel to the liver via the hepatic portal vein.


  • Reproductive System
    • Define: 
      • epididymis
      • vas deferens
      • seminal vesicles
      • prostate gland
      • bulbourethral gland
      • urethra. 

  • Vas deferens
    • is a duct that connects each testicle with the urethra.
    • Beginning at the epididymis, it leads up the inside of the scrotum, into the pelvic cavity, past the seminal vesicles, and prostate gland, and dumps into the urethra before the urethra enters the penis.

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  • Reproductive System
    • Define:
      • penis
      • testicles
      • scrotum
      • sperm
      • seminiferous tubules

  • Penis
    • is the male copulatory organ.
    • It can also be thought of as playing a structural role in excretion and ejaculation because the urethra runs through it.
  • Testicles
    • serve the primary functions of making, nurturing and storing sperm.
  • Scrotum
    • is the thin sack of skin in which the testes are located.
    • The external location of the scrotum allows the testicles to exist at a temperature a few degrees lower than the normal human body temperature of 37°C.
    • The optimum temperature for spermatogenesis is 35°C.
    • Sperm cells are the male haploid gametes.
  • Seminiferous Tubules (of the testes)
    • Sperm cells are produced in the STs of the testes and move to the epididymis, where they are nurtured, fully matured, and stored until ejaculation

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  • Immune System
    • Functions (2)

  1.  Protect the body from infection and disease
  2. destroy pathogens invading the body.


  • Immune System
    • Cells of the Immune Sys.
      • Define:
        • Dendritic Cells
        • Natural Killer cells
        • T-cells
        • B-cells
        • Plasma cells 

  • Dendritic cells
    • are professional antigen-presenting cells.
    • phagocytize pathogens and present those antigens on their surface
      • to stimulate other immune cells.
    • are white blood cells (leukocytes), but are not lymphocytes.
    • They can form from:
      • monocytes
        • which also differentiate into macrophages
      • independently in their own cell line
        • from a blood cell precursor.
  • There are three kinds of lymphocytes:
    1. T cells,
    2. B cells, and
    3. natural killer cells
    • recognize infected or cancerous cells and release cytotoxic granules that destroy the cell.
  • T cells
    • are lymphocytes that mature in the thymus
    • participate in cell-mediated immunity.
  • B-cells
    • are lymphocytes that mature in the bone marrow and lymph tissues
    • Participate in humoral immunity.
  • B-cells produce antibodies, T-cells do not.
  • T-cells recognize and bind antigens via a “Tcell Receptor” (TCR) not found on B-cells.
  • Plasma cells
    • are formed when:
      • a B-cell binds its matching antigen and is
    • Are activated when:
      • with the help of helper T-cells (T helps B)
        • to undergo mitosis.
  • This mitosis produces mostly plasma cells making and secreting soluble copies of that antibody. 


  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Skeletal Muscle
      • Characteristics
      • What attaches:
        • muscle to bone?
        • bone to bone?
      • What are joints an example of? 

  • Characteristics
    • voluntary, striated, and multinucleate. 
  • Attachments
    • Tendons attach muscle to bone
    • ligaments attach bone to bone 
  • The joints formed by most muscles and bones in the human body are examples of hinges with a poor lever system that work at a mechanical disadvantage.
  • For example, for the biceps brachii, the resistance is six times farther from the fulcrum than the force
    • meaning the muscle must create a force equal to six times the weight of the object in the hand. 


  • Reproductive System
    • Menstrual Cycle
      • Estrogen & Progesterone levels
        • Name the 3 symptoms of Menopause
        • What relation to these do Estrogen & Progesterone levels have?

  1. Hot flashes 
  2. Vaginal dryness
  3. Atrophy of breast tissue


  • ​All of these are the result of decreased estrogen and progesterone levels


  • Digestive System
    • Stomach
      • Mucous Neck Cells

  • Make and secrete mucus (into gastric pits, which lead to the stomach, lumen)
  • The secreted mucous is alkaline, thus providing protection from corrosion due to the extreme acidity of the stomach.
    • Stomach ulcers are from a lack of mucous neck cells


  • ​NOTE: “Goblet cells” are mucous-secreting cells found in the linings of the intestines and respiratory tract.
  • Don’t confuse them with mucous cells.

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  • Pancreas
    • Where do all pancreatic secretions empty?
    • What other duct joins with the pancreatic duct, and where?

  • All pancreatic secretions empty into the upper end of the duodenum
  • Just before emptying into the duodenum, the pancreatic duct is joined by the bile duct.

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  • Digestive System
    • Name the organs of the digestive system we need to know (8)

  1. Mouth
  2. Epiglottis
  3. Stomach
  4. Liver
  5. Pancrease
  6. Gallbladder
  7. Small Intestine
  8. Large Intestine

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  • Digestive System
    • Stomach
      • Proteins in the stomach undergo___, a reaction catalyzed by the ___ enzyme
      • This enzyme begins as___, which is an example of a zymogen
        • what is a zymogen anyways?

  • Proteins in the stomach undergo HYDROLYSIS, a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme PEPSIN

  • This enzyme begins as PEPSINOGEN, which is an example of a zymogen


      A zymogen is an inactive enzyme precursor


  • Reproductive System
    • Sperm
      • Describe the Ejaculation Pathway

  • During ejaculation, sperm leave the epididymis via the vas deferens.
  • The vas deferens arches back up into the pelvis and then back down toward the penis.
    • Along the way, the seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral gland (a.k.a. Cowper’s gland) all secrete various lubricants and nutrients into the ejaculate.
  • The vas deferens empties into the urethra at the base of the urinary bladder.
  • The urethra then travels down the penis


  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Cardiac Muscle
      • Characteristics 
      • How contraction of CM compare to skeletal muscle?

  • Characteristics
    • involuntary, striated, one nucleus
  • Contraction
    • Cardiac muscle cells contain sarcomeres the same as those found in skeletal muscle and therefor use the same sliding filament mechanism outlined above.


  • Bone
    • Skeletal Structure
      • Joint Types
        • Name the 3 types, give an example

  1. Fibrous
    • (skull bones)
  2. Cartilaginous
    • (ribs to sternum)
  3. Synovial
    • (knee, elbow, etc.)


  • The Pancreas
    • What kind of glad is it?
    • What does it secrete to decrease acidity (raise pH) of intestine?
    • What 6 digestive enzymes does it secrete? 

  • Is both an endocrine AND an exocrine gland
    • exocrine
      • because of the digestive enzymes listed below 
    • endocrine
      • because of insulin and glucagon
  • Secretes a bicarbonate rich solution, which neutralizes the stomach acid, decreasing the acidity of the intestine to pH = 6
  • Secretes the following digestive enzymes:
    • trypsin
    • chymotrypsin
    • pancreatic amylase
    • lipase
    • ribonuclease
    • deoxyribonuclease

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  • Digestive System
    • Stomach
      •  In addition to pepsin, what other molecule assists in protein metabolism in the stomach?

  • The acid in the stomach denatures proteins 
    • Remember: acid is a protein denaturing agent


  • Immune System
    • Acquired Immunity
      • Humoral Immunity
        • Describe the Primary response

  •  the immune system’s first exposure and reaction to a pathogen


  • Digestive System
    • Recall that humans are heterotrophs, so they cannot ____

  • Fix carbon.
  • The ability to “fix” carbon is the ability to capture carbon dioxide and integrate that carbon into larger macromolecules.
    • Plants, algae and some bacteria can do this, humans and animals generally cannot.
  • We must eat the carbon we need to build macromolecules


  • The Small Intestine
    • Define
      • In the S.I., in what parts do digestion & absorption occur, respectively? 

  • The MAJORITY of all digestion and absorption occurs in the small intestine
    • digestion occurs primarily in the duodenum
    • absorption primarily in the jejunum and ileum

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  • Digestive System
    • Stomach
      • G-cells

  • Make and secrete gastrin
  • Gastrin is released into the blood (NOT into the gastric pits/stomach lumen) where it circulates back to the parietal and chief cells stimulating them to release HCl and pepsinogen
    • thus furthering enhancing digestion

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  • Reproductive System
    • Define:
      • vagina
      • cervix
      • uterus
      • fallopian tubes
      • ovaries

  • Vagina
    • The vagina serves as:
      • the female copulatory organ
      • the birth canal
      • an exit route for menstrual fluid.
  • Cervix
    • is the conical-shaped bottom portion of the uterus that projects into the rear, upper wall of the vaginal canal.
    • It contains a small opening that allows for exchange of fluids, but must dilate significantly during child birth to allow for delivery.
  • Uterus
    • is an elastic, muscular pouch that :
      • receives a fertilized egg via implantation 
      • provides nourishment for the developing fetus.
    • Muscle contractions of the uterine wall, stimulated by oxytocin, facilitate the process of childbirth.
  • Fallopian Tubes
    • are ducts that utilize ciliated epithelium to transport the egg from the ovary to the uterus.
    • Fertilization usually occurs in one of the two fallopian tubes.
  • Ovaries
    • are the female gonads, homologous to the testes in males.
    • The ovaries develop and release ovum (i.e., eggs) on a regular 28-day cycle (on average).
    • They also function as endocrine glands
      • that secrete both estrogen and progesterone.

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  • Large Intestine
    •  A disease or illness that inhibits the normal function of the large intestine will most likely result in___?

  • Either a vitamin deficiency or problems with water balanc
    • either too little water absorption (diarrhea), or
    • too much water absorption (constipation)
  •  These are logical assumptions because the two primary functions of the large intestine are water absorption and vitamin absorption


  • Embryology
    • The 3 Germ Layers

  • Ectoderm
    • epidermis, nails, tooth enamel, lens of the eye, pituitary gland, central, peripheral and autonomic nervous systems.
  • Mesoderm
    • dermis, muscle, bone, connective tissues, kidneys, genitalia and most internal organs EXCEPT the liver and pancreas.
  • Endoderm
    • the entire digestive tract, thyroid, parathyroid, urinary bladder, the lining ONLY of the lungs, and the liver and pancreas.

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Small Intestine

  • Define:
    • Villi
    • Microvilli
    • Brush border (contains what 3 things?)

Which of these 3 contain LACTEALS?

What does the lacteal border do to Fats, Carbo's, & Proteins?


  • finger-like projections of the wall of the small intestine
  • The villi dramatically increase the surface area available for absorption

  • They are hollow and contain both blood vessels and a single lymphatic vessel called a lacteal


FATS are absorbed into the LYMPH system

via the lacteals

Carbohydrates and proteins

are absorbed into the BLOOD



  • Each epithelial cell lining a villus contains fingerlike projections of the cell membrane called microvilli (villi within a villi)
  • To be clear, a villus is an undulation of the lining of the small intestine, while a microvillus is an undulation of the cell membrane of a single cell.

Brush border

Microvilli+Mucus+Digestive Enzymes

is a name given to:

  • the microvilli and the collection of:
    • digestive enzymes
    • mucus

...intermingled WITHIN the microvilli

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  • Immune System
    • Acquired Immunity
      • Antigen Presentation
        • Describe the role of Macrophages 

  • Macrophages
    • engulf microbes and present antigens from those microbes on MHC proteins in their cell membranes to be recognized by B-cells and T-cells.


  • Immune System
    • Acquired Immunity
      • "Humoral Immunity" involves?

  • Involves B-cells (i.e., B-lymphocytes)


  • Liver
    • Functions (GENERAL)

  • Think of the liver as the “metabolic brain” of the human body.
  • It regulates the blood concentrations of many different solutes
  • Plays key roles in the metabolism of:
    • proteins
    • fats
    • carbohydrates
  • detoxifies chemicals
  • recycles metabolites
  • manufactures several key biomolecules


  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Why do you shiver?
    • What is occurring physiologically during a shiver?

  • Shivering is an involuntary response to cold.
  • At sufficiently low temperatures a specific location within the hypothalamus receives signals from the skin and spinal cord.
  • The hypothalamus sends signals to core muscle groups to undergo rapid contractions that generate heat.


  • Reproductive System
    • Sperm
      • What is the acrosome?
      • What does ti contain/what does it do? 

  • The acrosome is a membrane-bound structure on the tip of the head of each sperm.
  • The acrosome contains hydrolytic enzymes that breakdown the otherwise impenetrable coating around the ovum


  • Embryology
    • Define
      • Cleavage
      • Morula

HINT: Morula is the Greek word for "Mulberry" (below)

It kind of looks like a mulberry in this phase!

  • Gastrulation
  • Neurulation

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  • Cleavage
    • mitosis without change in size
  • Morula
    • 8-cell zygote
  • Gastrulation
    • at about week 2 cells migrate to form the three germ layers
  • Neurulation
    • at about week 3, the notochord forms from the mesoderm
    • Induces the overlying ectoderm to form the neural plate,
      • which becomes the neural tube
        • and eventually the spinal cord


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  • Describe:
    • mouth
    • pharynx
    • epiglottis
    • esophagus
      • Explain how it uses peristalsis

In which of these places does digestion NOT occur?

Role of the mouth in digestion is:

  • to physically breakup food particles
    • via chewing
  • mix the food with saliva and the alpha-amylase enzyme it contains
    • Amylase begins carbohydrate digestion
    • The lubricating properties of saliva aide in ease of movement
      • There are also specific classes of antibodies found in saliva.

The pharynx

  • ensures the bolus is delivered to the esophagus without entering the nasal cavities or the larynx

 NO DIGESTION of any kind occurs here and nothing is added to the bolus


  • is an upward-oriented cartilaginous flap
  • folds down over the opening to the larynx during swallowing
    • to prevent food from entering the larynx.


  • utilizes peristalsis to push the bolus down and into the stomach.


  • the rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle in the wall of the gastrointestinal track that moves food forward.

Once again, no digestion occurs in the esophagus and nothing is added


  • Reproductive System
    • Menstrual Cycle
      • Estrogen & Progesterone levels
        • What could happen as a result of high hormone levels? 

  • If hormone levels go up unexpectedly, high levels could cause unexpected menstruation if— AND ONLY IF—that increase was followed by a sudden decrease.
  • It is the drop in hormone levels that causes menstruation.
    • Unexpected menstruation of this type can sometimes be seen in elderly women given estrogen/progesterone therapy for treatment of osteoporosis


  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Smooth Muscle
      • What are some important features of Smooth Muscle?

  • Smooth muscle is NOT arranged in sarcomeres
  • Smooth muscle does NOT contract via the same sliding filament mechanism described previously for skeletal and cardiac muscle.
  • It is similar—actin and myosin still slide past one another—but several different proteins are involved and the steps are NOT identical.
  • As an example, in skeletal muscle it is calcium binding to troponin that initiates contraction, but in smooth muscle contraction is initiated by the calcium-dependent phosphorylation of the myosin head.
  • Smooth muscle contraction is sometimes referred to as the “calcium-calmodulin cascade"




  1. Is a ______ tissue composed mostly of _______
  2. Experiences NO ______ion or _______ion

It's its own thing, completely separate

from the rest of the body

A CONNECTIVE tissue composed mostly of COLLAGEN


Experiences NO:

    • Perfusion=
      •  the process of a body delivering blood to a capillary bed in its biological tissue (see pic)
    • Innervation= to arouse or stimulate (a nerve or an organ) to activity

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  • Digestive System
    • What are the 2 types of digestion? Compare them

  1. Physical Digestion
    • = chewing (mastication)
    • churning in stomach
    • breaking of food into smaller pieces
      • including emulsification of fats by bile 
  2. Chemical Digestion
    • = all breakdown of food that involves the breaking of bonds through the use of digestive enzymes


  • Liver
    • Functions (5 specific ones) 

  1. Produces Bile
    • which is then stored and concentrated in gall bladder
  2. Filters the blood
    • to remove toxins, drugs, metabolites, bacteria, etc. 
  3. Produces blood plasma proteins, including:
    • albumin
    • prothrombin
    • fibrinogen 
  4. Regulates amino acid levels in the blood. 
  5. Produces cholesterol and lipoproteins and packages them for transport
    • (LDL, HDL, etc.)


  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Skeletal Muscle
      • The Sarcomere
        • Draw a diagram of a sarcomere in both its relaxed and contracted position

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  • Name & compare the 3 BONE CELL types

HINT: "Osteo_____"

  1. Osteocytes ("-Cyte"
    • Mature bone cells surrounded by a mineral matrix
  2. Osteoclasts 
    • Bone cells that break down ("-Clast") and resorb bone matrix
      • ...releasing the component minerals (Ca2+ and P) back into the blood.
  3. Osteoblasts ("-blast"=IMMATURE cell)
    • Immature bone cells that secrete collagen, organic compounds, and minerals
      • forming a bone matrix around themselves.
    • Once they are completely enclosed by matrix, they differentiate into osteocytes.


  • Immune System
    • Acquired Immunity
      • Antigen Presentation
        • Describe the role of B-cells

  • B-cells that bind their specific antigen engulf it via receptor-mediated endocytosis and present a portion on MCH proteins in their cell membranes.
    • Helper T-cells recognize and bind this antigen
      • which causes the helper T-cell to release chemicals that stimulate other B and T cells and—most importantly—stimulates the B-cell that presented it with the antigen to divide into
        • a plasma cell, and
        • a memory B cell 
  • In other words, it is through antigen presentation that a Helper T-cell “helps” (i.e., activates) a B-cell to perform its function.
  • A B-cell can either:
    • bind to a free-floating antigen, or
    • it may have an antigen “presented” to it by a macrophage


  • Immune System
    • Cells of the Immune Sys
      • Describe:
        • Memory B Cells

  • Memory B cells
    •  Allow the immune system to mount a more efficient secondary immune response if there is a later infection by the same pathogen

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  • Bone
    • Skeletal Structure
      • Describe the anatomy of a Long Bone

  • Two epiphyses (bulbous ends) cushioned by cartilage
    • the ends are filled with spongy bone
    • the shaft in between is made of compact bone
    • the center is a hollow cavity
      • filled with yellow bone marrow

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  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Skeletal Muscle
      • The Motor Unit

  • All of the cells/fibers in a skeletal muscle DO NOT  fire simultaneously during a contraction.
  • A group of muscle cells innervated by a single motor neuron is called a “motor unit” .
  • Motor units come in all different sizes from large to small.


Skeletal Muscle

  • The Sarcomere
    • And describe how its length, location, or size changes during contraction
      • A band
      • I band
      • H zone
      • Z line
      • M line

To which of these are the ACTIN FILAMENTS anchored?

A band

  • is the length of the myosin filaments

The length of the myosin filaments DOES NOT CHANGE during contraction

I band

  • is the distance between the ends of the myosin filaments
  • It is also the lightest band when viewed under a microscope
    • because only the thin actin filaments are present in this region

The I band will SHORTEN during a contraction.

H zone

  • is the distance between the ends of the actin filaments.

The H zone SHORTENS during a contraction

Z lines (a.k.a. Z discs)

  • are zigzag lines that define the edges of each INDIVIDUAL sarcomere unit

The actin filaments are anchored here

by the protein CONNECTIN

...and stretch out in both directions.

During a contraction the distance between Z lines DECREASES




The distance between the M lines of NEIGHBORING sarcomeres

will DECREASE during a contraction

(again, because the SARCOMERE is SHORTENING)

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  • Skeletal Muscle
    • The Sarcomere
      • Sliding Filament Mechanism
        • What happens if no ATP is present?
        • What if no Ca2+ is present? 

  • If no ATP is present
    • the myosin heads cannot detach from actin and the muscle will be stuck in a contracted position called “rigor.”
    • This is what occurs during “rigor mortis” 
  • If no Ca2+ is present
    • we do NOT get rigor, but the inability to contract (a.k.a., “flaccidity”)


  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Skeletal Muscle
      • The Motor Unit
        • Describe Delicate & Gross movements
        • The strength of a contraction depends on what 3 things? 

  • Delicate movements = very small motor units
  • Gross movements = larger motor units 
  • ​The strength of a given contraction depends on:
  1. number of motor units being used
  2. size of the motor units being used
  3. frequency of action potentials
    • (i.e., stimulation)


  • Digestive System
    • Mouth
      • What is the name of the reaction by which amylase catalyzes carbohydrate breakdown?

  • The breakdown of all nutrient macromolecules into their monomers is accomplished via hydrolysis


  • Digestive System
    •  The Mouth
      • What important thing is in the mouth?
      • Digestion begins in the mouth with the physical digestion of ALL food types, and the chemical digestion of ___only
        • (via the ____enzyme )

  • Saliva provides lubrication & the first example of a digestive enzyme
  • Chemical digestion of Carbohydrates only
    • via α-amylase

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  • Immune SYstem
    • Tissues of the Immune Sys
      • Lymph Nodes

  • High concentration of B- and T-lymphocytes
  • Filters blood for pathogens
  • ​Other Lymphatic Tissues:
    • Lymph tissue similar to the contents of a lymph node is spread throughout the body, being particularly common in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracks. 

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  • Immune System
    • Acquired Immunity
      • Antigen Presentation
        • Describe the role of Dendritic Cells

  • These cells are antigen presentation experts
  • They are specialized to do so efficiently and are found in the highest concentration near membranes (such as the skin) that interface with the external environment
    • ​--where they are most likely to encounter antigens


  • Reproductive System
    • Menstrual Cycle
      • Estrogen & Progesterone Levels
        • What must happen to have menstruation? 
        • Don't confuse menstruation with___?
        • What can persistent low levels of estrogen/progesterone lead to? 

  • To have menstruation, or the sloughing off of the uterine lining, we must first have a buildup of that lining.
    • Build-up and maintenance of the uterine lining is one of the normal functions associated with estrogen/progesterone
  • Do NOT confuse menstruation with ovulation.
    • Ovulation requires a surge in hormone levels.
    • Menstruation requires a chronic decline.
  • Persistent low levels of estrogen/progesterone lead to the symptoms of menopause 


  • Immune System
    • Give examples of Innate Immunity

Includes all immune responses that are NOT specific to one particular virus, bacteria, pathogen, etc.

  • ​skin
  • stomach acid
  • enzymes in the mucus and saliva 
  • digestive enzyme,
  • blood chemicals 
  • fevers
  • inflammation
  • non-specific phagocytosis


Digestion of Proteins

  • Where does it BEGIN & where is it COMPLETE by?
  • What has to happen to Proteins before they can be absorbed?
    • Do these things enter the bloodstream or lacteal?
    • Where do they go from there?

BEGINS in the stomach

Is COMPLETE by the end of the small intestine


Proteins are broken down to small peptides and amino acids

They enter the bloodstream (NOT the lacteal) and travel to the liver


Reproductive System

  • Sperm
    • are the male ___?
    • What are the singular & plural forms of "sperm?"
    • Produced where?
    • Stored & nurtured where?
    • Are a ___, ___ cell
      • consisting of?
    • What do they contain a LOT of?

Sperm are the male GAMETES

  • Plural form:
    • "spermatozoa"
  • Singular form:
    • "spermatozoon" (Not a mix up. Thats really it)



  • by the TESTICLES 
    • in the ST's 

Stored and nurtured:

  • in the EPIDIDYMIS

They are a single, HAPLOID cell

consisting of a:

head (cell body)

tail (flagellum)

They contain lots of mitochondria!

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Skeletal Muscle

  • The Sarcomere

Define, as they relate to the SARCOMERE:

  1. thick filament
  2. thin filament
  3. actin
  4. myosin


THICK Filaments

  • Are made from MYOSIN fibers
    • Recall that myosin is a motor protein

THIN Filaments

  • consist of mostly ACTIN fibers
    • also known as microfilaments
  • thin filaments also contain
    • troponin and tropomyosin


  • is a protein
    • ...of which microfilaments are polymers


  • protein has both a head moiety and a tail moiety

A dimer is formed between TWO myosin proteins with their tails intertwined

  • Large numbers of these dimers combine to create the long myosin filaments seen in the sarcomere.


The globular heads, also called “crossbridges,” stick out from the myosin filament at an angle—which is the RELAXED conformation referred to as “BENT” in the sliding filament mechanism

  • Myosin heads have a high affinity for actin and will bind to it unless tropomyosin blocks the binding site

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  • Immune System
    • Acquired Immunity
      • Humoral Immunity
        • What does an antibody look like?
        • Include:
          • heavy chains
          • light chains
          • disulfide bridges
          • hypervariable region
          • location of antigen binding

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  • Immune System
    • Tissues in the Immune Sys
      • Lymph nodes
        • Provide a possible explanation for the location of concentrations of lymphoid tissue in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracks

  • The respiratory and gastrointestinal tracks would both be “front line” locations—if you will—in the battle against foreign invaders.
  • Both locations are interfaces between the internal and external environments.
  • For this reason, it would be an advantage for any organism to have lymph tissue, and therefore a concentration of immune cells, at these locations.


  • Reproductive System
    • Describe the Menstrual Cycle

  • Begins with FSH, which stimulates the maturation of ovum and the follicle in the ovary
    • FSH also stimulates maturation of sperm in males
  • LH then stimulates cells in the ovaries to secrete estrogen (estradiol), which signals the uterine wall to proliferate and prepare for a potential pregnancy.
  • Just before ovulation, a surge in the level of estrogen released causes a subsequent surge in levels of LH (luteal surge), which signals ovulation and the development of the corpus luteum.
  • The corpus lutem will begin secreting estrogen and high levels of progesterone to signal the uterine lining to prepare for implantation.
    • If no fertilization occurs the corpus luteum degrades and the menstrual lining sloughs off.
    • If implantation does occur, the corpus luteum continues to secrete estrogen and progesterone, maintaining pregnancy.


  • Immune System
    • What is the difference between B-cells and T-cells? 

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  • Stages of Mitosis
    • What do the following stages look like?
      • Interphase
      • Prophase
      • Metaphase
      • Anaphase
      • Telophase

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  • Stages of Meiosis I
    • What do the following stages look like?
      • Interphase
      • Prophase
      • Metaphase
      • Anaphase
      • Telophase

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  • Stages of Meiosis II
    • What do the following stages look like?
    • Interphase
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase

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  • Digestive System
    • Define "Chyme"
      • What is in the Chyme in the stomach?
        • i.e., what is partially, or not yet digested there, and name the enzymes present 

  • is a semifluid mass of partly digested 
  • expelled by the stomach
    • ....into the duodenum
  • moves through the intestines during digestion


    • Partially digested
      • carbo's & proteins
    • UNdigested:
      • fats
    • Enzymes:
      • pepsin
      • amylase 


  • Small Intestine
    • Describe "Lacteals"

  • Are found within Villi
    • which are the finger-like projections that line the Small Intestine
  • is a lymphatic capillary that absorbs:
    • Fats
    • Carbohydrates
  • ...into the Lymph System

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  • Embryology
    • Define
      • Neurulation

  • At about week 3, the notochord forms from the mesoderm
    • Induces the overlying ectoderm to form the neural plate
      • which becomes the neural tube
        • and eventually the spinal cord

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Digestion of Lipids

  • In order to travel in blood or lymph:
    • ALL lipids must do ONE of the following two things:

In order to travel in blood or lymph, all lipids must either:

  1. Bind to a protein carrier
    • such as ALBUMIN
  2. Be formed into a CHYLOMICRON or MICELLE 

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Acquired Immunity

  • Humoral Immunity
    • B-Cells
      • Describe the sequence of events that follow when an ANTIGEN binds to a B-Cell's ANTIBODY?

If an antigen binds to a B-cell’s antibody, the B-cell will undergo differentiation into: 

a PLASMA cell and a MEMORY B-cell

The plasma cells:

  • manufacture free antibodies
    • and release them into the blood

The memory B-cells

  • multiply and REMAIN IN THE BLOOD
    • preparing the body for a secondary response

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What is the difference between 


  • How many sets of chromosomes do each have?
    • ​∴, how many genes per trait do they have?
  • ​All ______s are haploid
  • All ______ ____s are diploid
  • What are haploids & diploids a RESULT OF, respectively? Mitosis or Meiosis?


"Ha"+"ploid"; "one set"

  • Cells with only ONE SET  of chromosomes
    • ONE gene for each trait
  • All GAMETES (like sperm & ovum) are haploid
  • Haploid cells are the result of MEIOSIS

​DIPLOID, "2n"

"di"+"ploid"; "two sets

  • Cells having HOMOLOGOUS chromosomes 
    • TWO genes for each trait
  • All  SOMATIC CELLS (aka "body cells"--basically any cell of the body EXCEPT for sperm & ovum) are diploid
  • Diploid cells are the result of MITOSIS

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Skeletal Muscle

The Sarcomere

    • Has a ___ moeity and ___ moeity
    • A ____ is formed b/t two myosin proteins that have their ____s intertwined
      • What do THESE go on to create?
    • The ____s, aka "crossbridges," stick out from myosin filament at an ____, which is the "_____ed conformation," which is referred to as "____" in the sliding filament mechanism
    • Myosin heads have a high affinity for _____and will bind to it unless _________blocks the _____ site





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  • protein has both a head moiety and a tail moiety

A dimer is formed between TWO myosin proteins with their tails intertwined

  • Large numbers of these dimers combine to create the long myosin filaments seen in the sarcomere.


The globular heads, also called “crossbridges,” stick out from the myosin filament at an angle

  • which is the "RELAXED conformation"
    • referred to as “BENT” in the sliding filament mechanism

Myosin heads have a high affinity for actin

and will bind to it unless:

 tropomyosin BLOCKS the binding site

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The _____ nerve (sympathetic/parasymp?)

SLOWS the heart rate

(Sympathetic/Parasymp) nerves INCREASE heart rate


The VAGUS nerve (PARAsympathetic) SLOWS the heart rate

SYMPATHETIC nerves INCREASE heart rate








During the contraction of a human muscle cell, a molecule of ATP is hydrolyzed into ADP and Pi in association with:

A. the transition of the myosin head from a bent to a straight position

B. the transition of the myosin head from a straight to a bent position

C. the power stroke

D. attachment of the myosin head to an actin filament


The RELAXED state of the myosin head is BENT

The HIGH-ENERGY state is the STRAIGHT position


ATP is used to make this transition--

priming the pump (or cocking the hammer)


  • ​This makes A true
  • B states the same thing, but mixes up the high and low states
  • The power stroke, Answer C, does NOT use the splitting of ATP; this utilizes the potential energy stored in the myosin head from the hydrolysis of ATP to “pull the trigger.”
  • Answer D is also false because the myosin head spontaneously attaches to the actin filament for which it has very high affinity


The RELAXED state of the myosin head is in the ____ position

The HIGH-ENERGY state is the ______ position

The RELAXED state of the myosin head

is in the BENT position



is the STRAIGHT position


Immediately BEFORE calcium enters the sarcomere through the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the relative state of the MYOSIN HEAD is best described as:

  • A. cocked and bonded to the actin filament
  • B. relaxed and bonded to the actin filament
  • C. cocked and dissociated from the actin filament
  • D. relaxed and dissociated from the actin filament


Cocked and dissociated from the actin filament

Prior to calcium entering the cell to displace tropomyosin:

  • the myosin head is NOT attached to the actin

It is also COCKED

  • so that after attaching to the actin head, it can relax to its BENT position
    • and DRAG the actin with it 

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Totipotent cells

  • can form all the cell types in a body--

PLUS (!) the EXTRAembryonic, or PLACENTAL, cells

  • Embryonic cells within the first couple of cell divisions after fertilization are the only cells that are totipotent

Pluripotent cells

  • can give rise to ALL of the cell types that make up the body
  • Embryonic stem cells are considered pluripotent

Multipotent cells

  • can develop into more than one cell type
    • but are more limited than pluripotent cells
  • Adult stem cells and cord blood stem cells are considered multipotent



  1. Appendages such as:
    • the ____ and ____
  2. At the ends of:
    • _____ bones 
    •  _______
  4. At almost any:
    • _____ or _________  

Cartilage is found in:

  1. Appendages such as:
    • the NOSE and EARS
  2. At the ends of:
    • LONG bones (e.g., femur)
    •  vertebrae
  4. At almost any:

 "Articulation"= the point of connection between

two bones or elements of a skeleton 

(especially if the articulation allows motion)