Biology Test Ch. 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology Test Ch. 3 Deck (56):
1

Organic

w/ carbon

2

Inorganic

lack carbon

3

Carbons key characteristic?

its bonding versatilely

4

Biological molecules are?

chains or rings of carbon

5

Functional Groups

small clusters of atoms that import chemical properties to MOLECULES they're attached to

6

***Carboxyl Group

(-COOH)

-functional group

-weak organic ACID like vinegar

7

***Methyl Group

(-CH3)

-functional group

-hydrophobic, found in fats/oils

8

Carbohydrates

-energy reserves

-structural components

9

Monosaccharides

-simple sugars

-many have formula “C6 H12 O6”

*ex. glucose, fructose

10

Sugars are a chain of?

carbon

11

Disaccharides

TWO simple sugars linked together

12

Sucrose

-disaccharide

ex. glucose, fructose

13

Lactose

-disaccharide

ex. galactose, glucose

14

see a word ending in "ose" think _____

sugar

15

see a word ending in “ase” think...

enzymes

16

Polysaccharides

-chains of simple sugars

ex. cellulose, chitin

17

Starch

-polymer of glucose

18

Plants produce _____

starch

ex. energy reserves of PLANTS

19

Monomer

individual subunit of polysaccharides

20

Polymer

LONG chain, similar subunits of polysaccharides

21

Glycogen

-highly branched polysaccharide

-energy reserve in ANIMALS

22

C
atomic #?
atomic mass?

C
-atomic # = 6
-atomic # = 12

23

Cellulose

-LONG chains of glucose

-Hbonded to each other

23

Cell walls in PLANTS made of _____

cellulose

24

Chitin (kite-in)

structural material in shells of crustaceans

25

Lipids

-energy storage molecules

-fats, steroids, oils

-waterproof covering around cells

26

a gram of lipids contains _____ the energy as carbs

twice

27

Triglycerides

-fats and oils

-each molecule contains a 3 -C Glycerol molecule bonded to 3 fatty acids

28

Saturated Fats

all CARBON atoms are bonded w/ at least 2 HYDROGENS

29

Unsaturated Fats

-one or more DOUBLE bonds btwn atoms

-HEALTHIER then saturated fats

30

Monounsaturated Fats

-one double bond

-monounsaturated healthier then poly

31

Polyunsaturated Fats

several DOUBLE bonds

32

Waxes

form waterproof coating on leaves, bark, fruit, feathers

33

Phospholipids

-makes part of the molecule water soluble

-components of cell membrane

34

Steroids

-made of FOUR interconnected rings of CARBON atoms

ex. sex hormones, vitamins, cholesterol

35

Structural Protein

found in hair, nails, skin

36

Regulatory Protein

-regulate how often cells dived,

-regulates process in body

37

Enzyme Protein

catalyst, speed up chemical reactions in body

38

Antibodie Protein

-protect some animals from disease

39

Polypeptides Protein

-made up of amino acids

***20 common amino acids

40

______ are the building blocks of proteins

Polypeptides

41

The human body has _____ proteins

25 - 30,000

42

Way a protein bends/ folds determines its _____

-function

-if bent wrong way, can cause damage/illness

43

Nucleotides

-monomers

-phosphate group

-5-carbon sugar

-nitrogen containing base

44

The nucleotide ATP is the main energy....

TRANSFER substance in cells

45

Nucleiac Acids are p____

are polymers

46

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

-stores hereditary info

***ORDER of 4 bases in DNA is key:
Adenine
Thymine
Guanine
Cytosine

47

Structure of DNA...

-twisted helix

-hydrogen bonds

48

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

-aids in usage of DNA info

-made IN nucleus of DNA*

-has same info as DNA

49

DNA molecules and chromosomes are divided...

into many genes

50

neutrons are...

NEUTRAL

51

neutrons =

atomic mass - atomic #

52

evidence darwin and wallace studied...

-fossils, made them think of extinction

-continental drift, changes of landscape

53

CO and CO2 are...

inorganic

54

If you know only the number of electrons in the outer shell of a neutral atom, which of the following properties could you accurately conclude...

bonding characteristics

55

# of protons and electrons are ____ in atom

equal