Chapter 9 (Pt. 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 (Pt. 1) Deck (32):
1

Genetics

study of heredity

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Gene

-unit of heredity

-part of chromosome that control traits

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Gregor Mendel

-father of genetics

-austrian monk

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Blending Hypotheses Of Inheritance

genetic info of parents blend producing offspring of characteristics



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Mendel proposed & tested the ______ ________ __ ______ using garden peas for his experiments

Particulate Hypotheses of Heredity

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Pea strains showed clear...

alternatives traits

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Mendel controlled matings b/c peas normally...

self-fertilize, he could CROSS-fertilize them

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Mendel knew he could disprove BLENDING hypotheses...

if parental forms reappeared in offspring

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Mendel experimented with

14 strains of pure bred peas

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In Mendels experiment The F1 Generation showed _____ ____ of the Parental Generation but NOT the ______ trait

dominant trait

recessive trait

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F1=

parents produce

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Monohybrid Crosses

matings btwn. individuals differing in ONE trait studied

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Parental generation

generation he starts off with

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Dominant trait

-may be most common

-if you have one dominant trait, your going to be dominant


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Mendel allowed F1 hybrid plants to self-fertilize...

producing seed for F2 Generation

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Recessive trait

-CAN skip generations

-only show up if you have TWO recessive traits

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The recessive traits reappeared, but NO _______ ______ appeared, disproving the _______ hypothesis

intermediate traits

blending

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Mendel found most F2 generations showed approx...

3:1 ratio of DOMINANT : recessive traits

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Classic Mendeilian ratio

3:1
dominant : recessive

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Unit of Heredity

produced short-stemmed plants in P passed to F1 generation

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Allele

-alternate form of gene

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We now know genes are

discrete sections of chromosomes

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Each chromosome has ONE...

allele per gene

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Mendel decided that a hybrid has 2 different alleles, one _______ & one ______

dominant

recessive

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Pure breeding parents have identical _____

alleles

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Phenotype

PHYSICAL appearance of organism

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Homozygous

-pure breed organisms

-pair of IDENTICAL alleles

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Genotype

-genetic makeup of organism
ex. purple allele, white allele

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Heterozygous

-hybrids with 2 DIFFERENT alleles for trait

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Mendel’s Principal Of Segregation:
SEXUALLY reproducing diploid organisms have...

-TWO copies of each gene

-split during formation of haploid GAMETES

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Mendel developed Testcross to determine genotype of...

organism showing dominant trait

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organisms w/ UNKOWN genotypes are crossed with...

Homozygous Recessive