Flashcards in NEW 2 Deck (36):
DNA --> RNA in nucleus
JOINS small fragments into continuous chain
change in chromosome # during MEIOSIS
Unattached nucleotides polymerized into new strand
-changes chromosome structure
-two NON-homologs exchange parts
X Chromosome Inactivation
-happens during embryo
development in FEMALE mammals
-male/female have one "ACTIVE X" in cells
Complementary Base Pairing Rules***
-A with T
-G with C
DNA replication occurs in 5 to...
3 directions (new strand)
DNA polymerases and DNA ligase also repair DNA...
damaged by radiation / toxic chemicals
Either mother's or father's X may...
DNA replication proceeds in two directions at
many origins of replication at once
gives patients protein they lack
ex. clotting factor for hemophiliacs
Once X becomes inactivated in cell, ALL parts of cell
have SAME inactive X
Early identification of genetic disorders are important for...
prevention & treatment
baby w/ PKU removes phenylalanine from diet
Fetal cells in AMNIOTIC fluid studied for chromosome/gene defects
Chorionic Villus Sampling
removal & analysis of fetal cells in CHORIN
Gene Mapping - helps screening &...
treatment of genetic disorders
-replace bad genes w/ normal genes
Replication does NOT continue on..
5 to 3 template, forms SHORT segments
determines genetic makeup of fetus
> 6 billion base pairs
Female mammals are _______ in X chromosome inactivation
ex. calico cat
Gene disorder carriers can be found through pedigrees, ...
biochemical analyses or genetic tests
DNA Model is made of...
TWO nucleotide chains: double helix
Occurs when homologous pair DOSENT separate during meiosis 1
DNA Replication takes place in...
-S phase of interphase
-sides of DNA ladder
________ _____ hold DNA strands together
DNA has EQUAL amounts of
each NEW molecule consist of one old strand, one new
Crucial to replication
DNA replication CONTINUES on _ to _ template
3 to 5
Genetic info flows from DNA --->
RNA ---> protein
DNA synthesis is highly accurate because of...
proofreading enzymes (DNA polymerases)