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Flashcards in NEW 2 Deck (36):
0

Transcription is

DNA --> RNA in nucleus

1

DNA ligase

JOINS small fragments into continuous chain

2

Non-disjunction

change in chromosome # during MEIOSIS

3

DNA Polymerase

Unattached nucleotides polymerized into new strand

4

Translocation

-changes chromosome structure

-two NON-homologs exchange parts

5

X Chromosome Inactivation

-happens during embryo
development in FEMALE mammals

-male/female have one "ACTIVE X" in cells

6

Complementary Base Pairing Rules***

-A with T

-G with C

7

DNA replication occurs in 5 to...

3 directions (new strand)

8

DNA polymerases and DNA ligase also repair DNA...

damaged by radiation / toxic chemicals

9

Either mother's or father's X may...

become inactive

10

DNA replication proceeds in two directions at

many origins of replication at once

11

Protein Therapy

gives patients protein they lack


ex. clotting factor for hemophiliacs

12

Once X becomes inactivated in cell, ALL parts of cell

have SAME inactive X

13

Early identification of genetic disorders are important for...

prevention & treatment

14

Physiological Therapy

baby w/ PKU removes phenylalanine from diet

15

Fetal cells in AMNIOTIC fluid studied for chromosome/gene defects

Amniocentesis

16

Chorionic Villus Sampling

removal & analysis of fetal cells in CHORIN

17

Gene Mapping - helps screening &...

treatment of genetic disorders

18

Gene Therapy

-replace bad genes w/ normal genes

19

Replication does NOT continue on..

5 to 3 template, forms SHORT segments

20

Prenatal Diagnosis

determines genetic makeup of fetus

21

Humans have

> 6 billion base pairs

22

Female mammals are _______ in X chromosome inactivation

mosaics
ex. calico cat

23

Gene disorder carriers can be found through pedigrees, ...

biochemical analyses or genetic tests

24

DNA Model is made of...

TWO nucleotide chains: double helix

25

Occurs when homologous pair DOSENT separate during meiosis 1

non-disjunction

26

DNA Replication takes place in...

-S phase of interphase

27

Sugar-phosphate are

-sides of DNA ladder

28

________ _____ hold DNA strands together

Hydrogen bonds

29

DNA has EQUAL amounts of

-"A+T"

- "G+C"

30

Semiconservative replication

each NEW molecule consist of one old strand, one new

31

Crucial to replication

base pairing

32

DNA replication CONTINUES on _ to _ template

3 to 5

33

Genetic info flows from DNA --->

RNA ---> protein

34

DNA synthesis is highly accurate because of...

proofreading enzymes (DNA polymerases)

36

Translation

RNA --> protein in cytoplasm