Chapter 8 (PART 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 (PART 1) Deck (40):
1

Cell & Life Cycles...

1) growth
2) wound repair
3) reproduction
4) cell division

2

Chromosomes

-contain info

-CONSTRUCT each part of the cell

3

Eukaryotic nucleus directs...

1) events in the cell

2) whole organisms

3) life cycle

4

Prokaryotes

-long, circular DNA molecule

5

Eukaryotes, vary in _____, _____, and _____

numbers, shapes, sizes

6

Linear DNA is wrapped around...

-histones
= balls of protein

7

In early stages of nuclear division, chromosomes consist of...

two IDENTICAL sister chromatids held together at CENTROMERE

8

Sister Chromatids

two identical copies of A chromatid

9

Centromere

part of chromosome that LINKS sister chromatids

10

Chromosomal ________ is essential part of cell cycle

duplication

11

Prokaryotes divide by _______ ______

binary fission

12

Eukaryotic Cell Cycle

1) interphase

2) m phase

13

Interphase includes THREE growth phases...

1) G1 Phase

2) S Phase

3) G2 Phase

14

G1 Phase

-cell parts replicated

15

S Phase

-DNA is synthesized/replicated

16

G2 Phase

-cells replicated

-cells prepare to divide

17

M Phase

-period of cell division

18

Mitosis

-process of nuclear division


19

FOUR phases of Mitosis

1) anaphase

2) metaphase

3) prophase

4) telephase

20

Prophase

-chromosomes condense

-nucleus disappears

-mitotic spindle forms

-chromosomes MIXED up

21

Late Prophase

-nuclear envelope disappears

-spindle attaches to CHROMOSOMES at centromere

22

Metaphase

-chromosomes align in MIDDLE of cell

23

Anaphase

-centromeres DIVIDE

-2 chromatids are pulled apart by SPINDLE

24

Telephase

-chromosomes arrive at opposite poles

nuclear envelopes REappear around each set of chromosomes

-spindle dissolves

25

Cytokinesis

-division of cytoplasm

-differs in plant & animal cells

26

Animal Cells

-divide from OUTSIDE in

-ring pinches cell, forming trench that splits cell

27

Plant Cells

- divide from INSIDE out

-central cell plate forms

-splits cell

28

Life Cycle of eukaryotes: process which...

young individual matures/reproduces

29

ALL clones produced by ______

mitosis

30

Some animals reproduce asexually by

budding / regeneration

31

Many organisms can switch between ______ & ______ reproduction

sexual & asexual

32

Sexual Reproduction

fusion of gametes (sex cell), produced in specialized structures

33

Ovaries

-produce eggs

-found in animals & flowering plants

34

Sperm are produced in the _____ of animals & ______ of flowering plants

testes / anthers

35

In some species, each individual produces only one kind of gamete, but in

many species, each adult can produce BOTH kinds

36

Fertilization

-results in single cell Zygote

-hereditary info from both parents unite

37

Zygote undergoes development...

period of rapid mitosis & cellular specialization

38

In animals, gametes come from _____ cells

germ

39

GERM CELLS***

-REPRODUCTIVE cell found in reproductive organ

-becomes GAMETES


40

SOMATIC CELLS***

-BODY cells

-everything BUT reproductive cells