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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (32):
1

Cells break down glucose using ______ into ___, ____ and most importantly ATP***

oxygen, C02, water

2

All use the SAME metabolic pathways for harvesting energy

-animals

-fungi

-plants

-protisa

3

Major metabolic pathway requires...

O2 which produces GREAT amounts of ATP

4

In absence of O2, some cells still harvest energy, but...

yield is lower

5

_____ flows through ecosystems

Energy

6

Plants harvest sunlight through...

-photosynthesis

-energy stored in carbs

-used for plant growth

7

Heterotrophs consume, directly or indirectly...

-energy stored by PLANTS

ex. herbivores, carnivores

8

Cellular metabolism converts stored...

CHEMICAL energy into forms useful to cell

9

ATP

-energy molecule that POWERS chemical reactions in cell

10

ATP & ADP are related _______

-compounds

-different in # of phosphates

11

Phosphorylation

-transfer phosphate TO molecule

-energizes recipient MOLECULE, allows chemical reactions

12

Transferring e- also transfers...

ENERGY in cell

13

In biological systems, energy carriers transfer _______ & _______

e- and H+

14

e- carriers include _____

-NADH

ex. linx bus


NAD + 2e- + H+ ----> NADH

15

Energy harvest occurs through the ______ OR _______ pathway

aerobic OR anaerobic

16

Aerobic Pathway happens in ______, ______ and _____ _____

- E.T.C.

-glycolysis,

-Krebs Cycle

17

Glycolysis***

-splits glucose into TWO pyruvate molecules

-takes place in CYTOPLASM

-2 ATP per glucose

-2 NADH’s

18

Mitochondria is the site of _____ & ______

-krebs cycle

-E.T.C.

19

Outer Membrane

-allow pyruvate & NADH to ENTER

20

Inner Membrane

-Christae, has molecules E.T.C & ATP

-synthesizes ENZYMES

21

Inner Compartment contains...

-DNA

-ribosomes

-enzymes of KREBS CYCLE

22

Krebs Cycle breaks...

down ORGANIC molecules besides glucose

23

E.T.C

1) e- from NADH & FADH2 passed in chain, flowing DOWN energy gradient

2) energy RELEASED by e- transfers goes into synthesis of ATP

24

***O2 is the final...

e- ACCEPTOR in E.T.C.

-combines with e- and H+, forming H2O

25

Anaerobic Pathway happens in _____ & _____

Glycolysis & Fermentation

26

ALL organisms have enzymes of....

glycolysis

27

During Fermentation, pyruvate is modified with....

NO further release of energy

28

Alcoholic Fermentation**

pyruvate ---> ETHANOL

(2-C) + CO2

ex baking, making drinks

29

Lactic Acid Fermentation**

pyruvate ---> LATIC ACID

(3-C)

30

Muscle cells rely on _____ _____ _______ when O2 supplies are low

lactic acid fermentation

31

Fermentation yields 0 ATP BUT...

recycles NAD+ from NADH, which is required for glycolysis

32

Fermentation is crucial to the recycling of...

carbon & stability of environment