Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (32):
Cells break down glucose using ______ into ___, ____ and most importantly ATP***
oxygen, C02, water
All use the SAME metabolic pathways for harvesting energy
Major metabolic pathway requires...
O2 which produces GREAT amounts of ATP
In absence of O2, some cells still harvest energy, but...
yield is lower
_____ flows through ecosystems
Plants harvest sunlight through...
-energy stored in carbs
-used for plant growth
Heterotrophs consume, directly or indirectly...
-energy stored by PLANTS
ex. herbivores, carnivores
Cellular metabolism converts stored...
CHEMICAL energy into forms useful to cell
-energy molecule that POWERS chemical reactions in cell
ATP & ADP are related _______
-different in # of phosphates
-transfer phosphate TO molecule
-energizes recipient MOLECULE, allows chemical reactions
Transferring e- also transfers...
ENERGY in cell
In biological systems, energy carriers transfer _______ & _______
e- and H+
e- carriers include _____
ex. linx bus
NAD + 2e- + H+ ----> NADH
Energy harvest occurs through the ______ OR _______ pathway
aerobic OR anaerobic
Aerobic Pathway happens in ______, ______ and _____ _____
-splits glucose into TWO pyruvate molecules
-takes place in CYTOPLASM
-2 ATP per glucose
Mitochondria is the site of _____ & ______
-allow pyruvate & NADH to ENTER
-Christae, has molecules E.T.C & ATP
Inner Compartment contains...
-enzymes of KREBS CYCLE
Krebs Cycle breaks...
down ORGANIC molecules besides glucose
1) e- from NADH & FADH2 passed in chain, flowing DOWN energy gradient
2) energy RELEASED by e- transfers goes into synthesis of ATP
***O2 is the final...
e- ACCEPTOR in E.T.C.
-combines with e- and H+, forming H2O
Anaerobic Pathway happens in _____ & _____
Glycolysis & Fermentation
ALL organisms have enzymes of....
During Fermentation, pyruvate is modified with....
NO further release of energy
pyruvate ---> ETHANOL
(2-C) + CO2
ex baking, making drinks
Lactic Acid Fermentation**
pyruvate ---> LATIC ACID
Muscle cells rely on _____ _____ _______ when O2 supplies are low
lactic acid fermentation
Fermentation yields 0 ATP BUT...
recycles NAD+ from NADH, which is required for glycolysis