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Flashcards in NEW 1 Deck (48):
1

Sex Chromosomes

chromosome pairs w/ DIFFERENT members in female & male

-determine sex

-develop sexual characteristics

1

Females have 2 __ chromosomes

X

2

Males have one __ & __ chromosome

X & Y

3

Size of chromosome Y?

small

4

Size of chromosome X?

LARGE, heavier

5

Autosomes

-both pairs of chromosomes look SAME in both sexes

-everything BUT sex chromosomes

6

Gender is linked to:

SEX chromosomes

7

Genes on X chromosome are “__-linked”

X-linked

8

Genes on Y chromosome are “__ -linked

Y-linked

9

Male-determining gene is on __ ____ chromosome

Y linked

10

Linkage

genes on same chromosome INHERITED together

11

C/O reduces...

linkage

14

Albinism

-autosomal recessive

15

FUTHER apart 2 genes are on chromosome the...

more likely they're separated by c/o

16

Frequency of C/O is used in _____ ______

genetic mapping

17

Genes ADDRESS on chromosome

locus

18

Chromosome are aligned like...

beads on string

19

Cystic Fibrosis

-respiratory disease: produces mucus

-autosomal recessive

-most common in caucasians

treatments: chest precautions

20

Recessive disorders on “X” mostly show up in _____ bc:

males

: have only 1 X chromosome

21

Phenylalanine Hydroxylase (PAH)

breaks down phenylalanine

22

Red/Green Color Blind

-X recessive

-only MALES

23

Ppl w/2 recessive alleles CANT...

make PAH
(phenylalanine hydroxylase)

24

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

-X link RECESSIVE

-missing MEMBRANE protein

-MALES only

-muscle degeneration

-females can carry allele and pass to son

25

Build up of phenylalanine causes nerve cells in brain to...

develop abnormally

26

Progeria

-aging disorder

ex. movie JACK

27

Children w/ PKU may suffer from mental disabilities unless...

phenylalanine intake restricted

28

Most genes encode proteins w/ necessary _______....

functions

Ex.
-enzymes: mutations ALTER genes, disorder can result

29

Turner Syndrome

-CHANGES IN CHROMOSOME # during meiosis

-person has XO

-missing CHROMOSOME

30

Hemophilia

-X link recessive

-missing gene/protein

-no BLOOD CLOT factor

31

Missing proteins are...

needed to survive

PKU (missing enzyme)
Hemophilia (missing clotting factor)

32

Many traits are polygenic having...

-many genes

ex. Limb length, Alzheimer’s Disease

33

Humans are difficult genetic subjects bc...

1) cant control mating

2) never true F2 generation

3) have few children

4) LONG generation times

34

Genetic principles that apply to other organisms also apply to _______

humans

35

Pedigree - diagram that shows

-family relationships

-birth order

-gender

-phenotype

-sometimes genotype

36

Allows geneticist to determine if trait is dominant, recessive, autosomal, or x-linked

pedigree

37

Autosomal recessive traits, such as PKU aren't expressed in...

heterozygous carriers

-appear equally in male/females

38

MOST genetic conditions are __________ ______

autosomal recessive

39

Huntington’s Disease

-DOMINANT autosomal

-leads to death

-35-50 yrs old

-degeneration/death of nerve cells

40

Allele passes from an afflicted parent to an afflicted child in __________ disorder

huntington's

41

Disorder caused by base sequence CAG repeated over & over near the start of the gene

huntington's

42

In huntington's disorder the greater # of repeats, earlier it strikes the...

more severe it becomes

43

Dominant lethal alleles are ____

rare

44

Klinefelter

-CHANGES IN CHROMOSOME # during meiosis

-3 chromromses (XXY) MALE

-sterile MALE

-long limbs

-low verbal skills/IQ

45

Homozygous don’t survive...

fetal development

46

Sickle Cell Anemia

-autosomal recessive

-black ppl effected

-affects hemoglobin

47

Heterozygotes usually die before __________

reproducing

-EXCEPT HUNGINHTON'S

48

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

-autosomal recessive

-CANT break down phenylalanine

-missing protein

-mental shortage

-NO cure

-treatment: don’t eat phenylalanine

49

Arranging chromosomes in sequence by size:

karyotype