Flashcards in Biology4-2 Deck (67):
reactants of photosynthesis
light, carbon dioxide, and water
products of photosynthesis
carbohydrates and oxygen
reactants of the light reactions
H20, light, NADP+, ADP+P
products of the light reactions
ATP, NADPH, O2
reactants of the Calvin Cycle
CO2, ATP, NADPH
products of the Calvin Cycle
sugar, NADP+, ADP+P
Why must photosynthesis produce sugar instead of directly outputting ATP or NADPH to the cell?
ATP and NADPH cannot be stored for later use
hole in leaf that allows H2) and O2 to move out and CO2 to move in
waxy outer layer that prevents water loss
open stomata when there is H2) present
contains cells with chloroplasts
provides air space within leaf
transports H20 and nutrients to plant
transports nutrients within plant veins
transports water within plant veins
outer cell layers of the leaf
surround vein in C4 plants
outer phospholipid bilayer of a chloroplast
open region between the two phosopholipid bilayers of a chloroplast
inner phospholipid bilayer of a chloroplast
aqueous fluid (comprised mostly of water) that makes up the interior of a chloroplast; where the Calvin Cycle occurs; contains enzymes needed for Calvin Cycle, cpDNA, cpRNA, and cp ribosomes
Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?
in the stroma
space inside a thylakoid
contains chlorophyll pigments; where light reactions occur
Where do the light reactions occur?
in the thylakoid membrane
stack of thylakoids
long structures connecting thylakoids
a product of the Calvin Cycle
makes cp proteins
the chloroplast's own DNA
instructions to make proteins within the chloroplast
drop of lipids; product of Calvin Cycle
Where are pigments found in the chloroplast?
What are stacks of thylakoids called?
Where are the thylakoids found in bacteria cells?
in the cytoplasm
Where are grana found?
within the chloroplasts of algae and plants
What is contained in the stroma?
enzymes needed for Calvin Cycle, cpDNA, cpRNA, and cp ribosomes
electric and magnetic vibrations
What determines the color and energy of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum?
What wavelengths have lower energy?
long wavelengths have low energy
What wavelengths have higher energy?
short wavelengths have high energy
What frequencies have lower energy?
low frequencies have low energy
What frequencies have higher energy?
high frequencies have high energy
What wavelengths correspond to low frequencies?
long wavelengths correspond to low frequencies
What wavelengths correspond to high frequencies?
short wavelengths correspond to high frequencies
What frequencies correspond to long wavelengths?
low frequencies correspond to long wavelengths
What frequencies correspond to short wavelengths?
high frequencies correspond to short wavelengths
What are the parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in order of least to most energy?
radio, microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-ray, gamma
What is the order of the colors of the visible spectrum from lowest to greatest energy?
red, orange, yellow, blue, green, indigo, and violet
molecules that change when they absorb visible light (release e-) (the change may be reversed)
What spectrums would provide the greatest energy for living organisms?
UV, x-ray, and gamma
Why can organisms not use UV, x-ray, and gamma to get more energy than from visible light?
nothing has evolved that can absorb the energy without being harmed or mutated
What are the pigments in chloroplasts?
chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, carotenoids, and rhodopsin
What colors of light does chlorophyll A absorb?
violet, blue, orange, and red light
What colors of light does chlorophyll B absorb?
blue, indigo, and some orange and red light
What color of light do carotenoids absorb?
all colors of light except green, red, and yellow
What type of pigment are carotenoids?
What is special about carotenoids?
they break down later in the year, giving plants their fall colors
Where is rhodopsin found?
some bacteria and the eyes of animals
Why do plants have multiple pigments?
to avoid wasted energy
What affects the light absorbed by different pigment molecules?
the size of the pigment molecules
What are the three major energy conversions in photosynthesis?
absorption of light energy, conversion of light energy into chemical energy, storage of chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates
What are the two major reaction groups in photosynthesis?
light reactions and the Calvin Cycle
What happens in the light reactions?
- pigment molecules absorb light in the thylakoid membrane- water is split into 2H-, 2e-, and 1/2O2- light in converted to chemical energy in photosystems
What happens in the Calvin Cycle?
3-carbon sugars are created from the chemical energy from the light reactions and CO2- 3-carbon sugars combine to produce 6-carbon sugars (glucose)
What is the chemical formula for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + H2) --> C6H12O6 + 602