Biology4-2 Flashcards Preview

N320 Biology Honors > Biology4-2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology4-2 Deck (67):
1

reactants of photosynthesis

light, carbon dioxide, and water

2

products of photosynthesis

carbohydrates and oxygen

3

reactants of the light reactions

H20, light, NADP+, ADP+P

4

products of the light reactions

ATP, NADPH, O2

5

reactants of the Calvin Cycle

CO2, ATP, NADPH

6

products of the Calvin Cycle

sugar, NADP+, ADP+P

7

Why must photosynthesis produce sugar instead of directly outputting ATP or NADPH to the cell?

ATP and NADPH cannot be stored for later use

8

stomata

hole in leaf that allows H2) and O2 to move out and CO2 to move in

9

cuticle

waxy outer layer that prevents water loss

10

guard cells

open stomata when there is H2) present

11

palisade mesophyll

contains cells with chloroplasts

12

spongy mesophyll

provides air space within leaf

13

vein

transports H20 and nutrients to plant

14

xylem

transports nutrients within plant veins

15

phloem

transports water within plant veins

16

upper/lower epidermis

outer cell layers of the leaf

17

bundle sheath

surround vein in C4 plants

18

outer membrane

outer phospholipid bilayer of a chloroplast

19

intermembrane space

open region between the two phosopholipid bilayers of a chloroplast

20

inner membrane

inner phospholipid bilayer of a chloroplast

21

stroma

aqueous fluid (comprised mostly of water) that makes up the interior of a chloroplast; where the Calvin Cycle occurs; contains enzymes needed for Calvin Cycle, cpDNA, cpRNA, and cp ribosomes

22

Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?

in the stroma

23

lumen

space inside a thylakoid

24

thylakoid membrane

contains chlorophyll pigments; where light reactions occur

25

Where do the light reactions occur?

in the thylakoid membrane

26

granum

stack of thylakoids

27

lamellae

long structures connecting thylakoids

28

starch molecule

a product of the Calvin Cycle

29

cp ribosome

makes cp proteins

30

cpDNA

the chloroplast's own DNA

31

cpRNA

instructions to make proteins within the chloroplast

32

plastoglobule

drop of lipids; product of Calvin Cycle

33

Where are pigments found in the chloroplast?

the thylakoids

34

What are stacks of thylakoids called?

grana

35

Where are the thylakoids found in bacteria cells?

in the cytoplasm

36

Where are grana found?

within the chloroplasts of algae and plants

37

What is contained in the stroma?

enzymes needed for Calvin Cycle, cpDNA, cpRNA, and cp ribosomes

38

light

electric and magnetic vibrations

39

What determines the color and energy of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum?

wavelength

40

What wavelengths have lower energy?

long wavelengths have low energy

41

What wavelengths have higher energy?

short wavelengths have high energy

42

What frequencies have lower energy?

low frequencies have low energy

43

What frequencies have higher energy?

high frequencies have high energy

44

What wavelengths correspond to low frequencies?

long wavelengths correspond to low frequencies

45

What wavelengths correspond to high frequencies?

short wavelengths correspond to high frequencies

46

What frequencies correspond to long wavelengths?

low frequencies correspond to long wavelengths

47

What frequencies correspond to short wavelengths?

high frequencies correspond to short wavelengths

48

What are the parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in order of least to most energy?

radio, microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-ray, gamma

49

What is the order of the colors of the visible spectrum from lowest to greatest energy?

red, orange, yellow, blue, green, indigo, and violet

50

pigments

molecules that change when they absorb visible light (release e-) (the change may be reversed)

51

What spectrums would provide the greatest energy for living organisms?

UV, x-ray, and gamma

52

Why can organisms not use UV, x-ray, and gamma to get more energy than from visible light?

nothing has evolved that can absorb the energy without being harmed or mutated

53

What are the pigments in chloroplasts?

chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, carotenoids, and rhodopsin

54

What colors of light does chlorophyll A absorb?

violet, blue, orange, and red light

55

What colors of light does chlorophyll B absorb?

blue, indigo, and some orange and red light

56

What color of light do carotenoids absorb?

all colors of light except green, red, and yellow

57

What type of pigment are carotenoids?

accessory pigments

58

What is special about carotenoids?

they break down later in the year, giving plants their fall colors

59

Where is rhodopsin found?

some bacteria and the eyes of animals

60

Why do plants have multiple pigments?

to avoid wasted energy

61

What affects the light absorbed by different pigment molecules?

the size of the pigment molecules

62

What are the three major energy conversions in photosynthesis?

absorption of light energy, conversion of light energy into chemical energy, storage of chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates

63

What are the two major reaction groups in photosynthesis?

light reactions and the Calvin Cycle

64

What happens in the light reactions?

- pigment molecules absorb light in the thylakoid membrane- water is split into 2H-, 2e-, and 1/2O2- light in converted to chemical energy in photosystems

65

What happens in the Calvin Cycle?

3-carbon sugars are created from the chemical energy from the light reactions and CO2- 3-carbon sugars combine to produce 6-carbon sugars (glucose)

66

What is the chemical formula for photosynthesis?

6CO2 + H2) --> C6H12O6 + 602

67

How many Calvin Cycles does it take to produce a 12 carbon sugar?

4