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Flashcards in BiologyC6Swavely Deck (64):
1

cell theory

cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms, all cell come from preexisting cells

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Robert Hooke

1665, first scientist to see a cell, cork, compound light microscope, saw tiny boxes and named it cells which means "little rooms" in Latin

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Robert Brown

1831, discovered and named the nucleus

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M.J. Schleiden

1831, dvanced the idea that plants are made up of cells that contain nuclei and cell fluid.

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Theodor Schwann

1839, concluded that all animals are made of cells

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Anton van Leeuwenhoek

1695,Dutch pioneer microscopist who was among the first to recognize cells in animals and who gave the first accurate descriptions of microbes

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Rudolf Virchow

German pathologist who recognized that all cells come from cells by binary fission and who emphasized cellular abnormalities in disease

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prokaryote

A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles, bacteria

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eukaryote

A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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nucleoid

Area in prokaryotic cells in which DNA is concentrated, though not bounded by a membrane

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plasmid

A small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code

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flagella

A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules, ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.

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organelle

A membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function within a cell.

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cell wall

A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists. In plant cells, the wall is formed of cellulose fibers embedded in a polysaccharide-protein matrix.

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nucleoli

Areas in nucleus with high concentrations of protein and RNA molecules; ribosomes assembled here

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plasma membrane

A selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells

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nucleus

Control center of the cell; contains most of cell's genetic information in DNA, which condenses to form chromosomes during mitosis

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cytoskeleton

a microscopic network of hollow microtubles, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape, internal organization, and movement

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lysosome

site of intracellular digestion; formed by budding from Golgi apparatus; fuses with vesicles containing food particles ingested by cell

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centrioles

tubular structures formed of microtubles; occur in pairs during interphase; duplicate prior to mitosis and form organizing centers for mitotic spindles in protist and animal cells

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mitochondrion

enclosed in double membrane; inner membrane folded; most reactions of cellular respiration

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smooth endoplasmic reticulum

An endomembrane system where lipids are synthesized, calcium levels are regulated, and toxic substances are broken down; lacks ribosomes

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rough endoplasmic reticulum

System of internal membranes within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport of substances such as proteins within the cytoplasm

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Golgi apparatus

system of flattened sacs that modifies, sorts, and packages macromolecules in vesicles for secretion or delivery to other organelles

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cytosol

fluid material surrounding organelles; contains enzymes that catalyze cellular reactions

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chloroplast

enclosed by a double membrane; this membrane system forms thylakoids in which light-absorbing pigments are embedded. All reactions of photosynthesis occur in chloroplasts

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vacuole

large vesicle enclosed in single membrane; may occupy more than 50% of volume in plant cells; contains water and digestive enzymes; stores nutrients and waste products

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nuclear pore

structures in the nuclear envelope that allow passage of certain materials between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm

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cilia

Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion

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tight junction

membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid

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gap junction

Points that provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to another with special membrane proteins. Also called communicating junctions.

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desmosome

Anchoring junctions that prevents cells subjected to mechanical stress from being pulled apart; button like thickenings of adjacent plasma membranes connected by fine protein filaments

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tonoplast

A membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell, separating the cytosol from the vacuolar contents, called cell sap; also known as the vacuolar membrane.

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nucleolus

A specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and active in the synthesis of ribosomes

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nuclear membrane

A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm

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peroxisome

Contain oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals

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vesicle

A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell.

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leukoplast

A type of plastid found only in plant cells, store starches for the plant cell

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chromoplast

A type of plastid that contain colorful pigments that may or may not be involved in photosynthesis.

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ECM

Extracellular Matrix, the substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded, consisting of protein and polysaccharides synthesized and secreted by cells.

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microvilli

Fingerlike extensions of plasma membrane of apical epithelial cells, increase surface area, aid in absorbtion, exist on every moist epithelia, but most dense in small intestine and kidney

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microtubles

Hollow tubes, like plumbing pipes that maintain the shape of the cell and serve as tracks for organelles to move along within the cell.

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plasmodesmata

An open channel in the cell wall of plants through which strands of cytosol connect from adjacent cells

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colonies

groups of microscopic colonies

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Volvox

Colonial green algae

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Chlamydomonas

A single celled green alga, a small egg shaped cell with 2 flagella and a single chloroplast has two small contractile vacuoles.

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biofilm

A surface-coating colony of one or more species of prokaryotes that engage in metabolic cooperation.

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division of labor

Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different cell types and organelles

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epidermis

Outer layer of skin

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tissue

A group of similar cells that perform the same function.

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organ

A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body

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organ system

A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.

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organism

a group of organ systems

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cytoplasm

Consists of organelles, cytoskeleton, and cytosol

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ribosomes

A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits.

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leukoplast

found only in plant cells, store starches for the plant cell

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chromoplast

Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis

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intermediate filaments

Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments

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desmosomes

Anchoring junctions that prevents cells subjected to mechanical stress from being pulled apart; button like thickenings of adjacent plasma membranes connected by fine protein filaments

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gap junctions

Points that provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to another with special membrane proteins. Also called communicating junctions.

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cell specialization

Separate roles for each type of cell in multicellular organisms

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levels of organization

Atom; Molecule; Organelle; Cell; Tissue; Organ; Organ System; Organism; Population; Community; Ecosystem; Biosphere

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prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes

Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus

64

anchoring junction

fasten animal cells together into sheets with rivots