Flashcards in BiologyC4Swavely Deck (54):
An organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances, using light or chemical energy. Green plants, algae, and certain bacteria are autotrophs.
An organism that harnesses light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide.
An organism (typically a bacterium) that obtains energy through chemical process, which is by the oxidation of electron donating molecules from the environment, rather than by photosynthesis.
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
A colored chemical compound that absorbs light, producing color
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
An organelle in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.
In plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast.
A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions
A type of yellow-green accessory photosynthetic pigment that accepts energy from chlorophyll a.
The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.
First stage of photosynthesis. Named because it requires light to happen. Begins with the absorption of light in the chloroplasts.
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
A photosystem that contains a pair of P680 chlorophyll molecules and uses absorbed light energy to split water into protons and oxygen and to produce ATP.
One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P700 reaction-center chlorophyll.
electron transport system
A series of electron carrier molecules, found in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts and the inner membrane of mitochondria, that extract energy from electrons and generate ATP or other energetic molecules.
(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) one of the carrier molecules that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules (oxidized form)
A molecule that carries electrons from glucose and other fuel molecules and deposits them at the top of an electron transport chain (reduced form)
an enzyme complex in the inner membrane of the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast that catalyzes the formation of ATP.
3-Phosphoglycerate; a three-carbon molecule formed in the first step of the Calvin cycle after the unstable 6-C intermediate splits
1-3 Biphosphoglycerate, a 3-carbon sugar that is produced in the Calvin cycle after phosphorylation of PGA
A highly reduced 3 carbon sugar formed in the Calvin cycle; for each CO2 are formed in the Calvin cycle; 1 leaves to be used in the cell, 5 are use for regeneration of RuBP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
(Adenosine Diphosphate) The compound that remains when a phosphate group is removed from ATP, releasing energy
Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet
Electromagnetic radiation that lies within the visible range.
The fluid inside a thylakoid
An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis, and function in photoprotection
A light-sensitive pigment found in the rod cells of the eye that is formed by retinal and opsin. Also found in some bacteria
Chlorophyll a molecules that serve as the reaction center of Photosystem II, transferring photoexcited electrons to a primary acceptor; named by their absorption peak at 680 nm.
A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle.
A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed.
The amount of light at which plants achieve the maximum rate of photosynthesis.
damage to the light-gathering process in photosynthesis; occurs when a chloroplast has absorbed too much light energy
principle of limiting factors
A theory that suggests that photosynthesis is controlled by whichever environmental factor is present in the shortest supply relative to the biological demand for it; light, temp, CO2 level, water
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
bundle sheath cells
In C4 plants, a type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed areas around the veins of a leaf.
A photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface.
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
ribulose biphosphate; a five-carbon carbohydrate that combines with CO2 in the first step of the Calvin Cylce
A 6-carbon monosaccharide sugar. Very important source of energy within cells. Product of photosynthesis.
A substance produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis that is used for completion of cellular respiration
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels