BiologyC4Swavely Flashcards Preview

N320 Biology Honors > BiologyC4Swavely > Flashcards

Flashcards in BiologyC4Swavely Deck (54):
1

autotrophy

An organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances, using light or chemical energy. Green plants, algae, and certain bacteria are autotrophs.

2

photoautotroph

An organism that harnesses light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide.

3

chemoautotroph

An organism (typically a bacterium) that obtains energy through chemical process, which is by the oxidation of electron donating molecules from the environment, rather than by photosynthesis.

4

photosynthesis

Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars

5

photosynthesis equation

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2

6

pigment

A colored chemical compound that absorbs light, producing color

7

thylakoid

A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.

8

chloroplast

An organelle in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.

9

stroma

In plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast.

10

granum

A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast

11

chlorophyll

A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria

12

chlorophyll a

A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions

13

chlorophyll b

A type of yellow-green accessory photosynthetic pigment that accepts energy from chlorophyll a.

14

wavelength

The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.

15

light reactions

First stage of photosynthesis. Named because it requires light to happen. Begins with the absorption of light in the chloroplasts.

16

Calvin cycle

reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars

17

photosystem II

A photosystem that contains a pair of P680 chlorophyll molecules and uses absorbed light energy to split water into protons and oxygen and to produce ATP.

18

photosystem I

One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P700 reaction-center chlorophyll.

19

electron transport system

A series of electron carrier molecules, found in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts and the inner membrane of mitochondria, that extract energy from electrons and generate ATP or other energetic molecules.

20

NADP+

(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) one of the carrier molecules that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules (oxidized form)

21

NADPH

A molecule that carries electrons from glucose and other fuel molecules and deposits them at the top of an electron transport chain (reduced form)

22

ATP synthase

an enzyme complex in the inner membrane of the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast that catalyzes the formation of ATP.

23

PGA

3-Phosphoglycerate; a three-carbon molecule formed in the first step of the Calvin cycle after the unstable 6-C intermediate splits

24

PGAL

1-3 Biphosphoglycerate, a 3-carbon sugar that is produced in the Calvin cycle after phosphorylation of PGA

25

G3P

A highly reduced 3 carbon sugar formed in the Calvin cycle; for each CO2 are formed in the Calvin cycle; 1 leaves to be used in the cell, 5 are use for regeneration of RuBP

26

ATP

(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

27

ADP

(Adenosine Diphosphate) The compound that remains when a phosphate group is removed from ATP, releasing energy

28

ROYGBIV

Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet

29

light

Electromagnetic radiation that lies within the visible range.

30

lumen

The fluid inside a thylakoid

31

carotenoids

An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis, and function in photoprotection

32

rhodopsin

A light-sensitive pigment found in the rod cells of the eye that is formed by retinal and opsin. Also found in some bacteria

33

P700

Photosystem I

34

P680

Chlorophyll a molecules that serve as the reaction center of Photosystem II, transferring photoexcited electrons to a primary acceptor; named by their absorption peak at 680 nm.

35

chemiosmosis

A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.

36

C3 plants

A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.

37

C4 plants

A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle.

38

CAM plants

A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed.

39

light saturation

The amount of light at which plants achieve the maximum rate of photosynthesis.

40

photoinhibition

damage to the light-gathering process in photosynthesis; occurs when a chloroplast has absorbed too much light energy

41

principle of limiting factors

A theory that suggests that photosynthesis is controlled by whichever environmental factor is present in the shortest supply relative to the biological demand for it; light, temp, CO2 level, water

42

rubisco

Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).

43

photorespiration

A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.

44

bundle sheath cells

In C4 plants, a type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed areas around the veins of a leaf.

45

mesophyll cells

A photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface.

46

greenhouse effect

Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases

47

RuBP

ribulose biphosphate; a five-carbon carbohydrate that combines with CO2 in the first step of the Calvin Cylce

48

CO2

Carbon Dioxide

49

glucose

A 6-carbon monosaccharide sugar. Very important source of energy within cells. Product of photosynthesis.

50

oxygen

A substance produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis that is used for completion of cellular respiration

51

photophosphorylation

The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.

52

chemosynthesis

Process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates

53

facilitated diffusion

Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels

54

active transport

Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference