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Flashcards in BiologyMidtermVocabSwavely Deck (110):
1

biology

Study of life

2

AIDS

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome caused by HIV

3

growth hormone

A hormone released by the anterior pituitary that targets all cells in the body. Growth hormone stimulates whole body growth in children and adolescents, adn increases cell turnover rate in adults.

4

bioethics

Branch of study of moral issues, questions, & problems arising in the practice of medicine & biomedical research is called

5

evolution

Change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.

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scientific method

A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.

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hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

8

theory

A well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world.

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law

A statement that summarizes or describes the observations about our world and experiments

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natural selection

Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest

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adaptation

A characteristic that improves an individual's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.

12

variation

Any difference between individuals of the same species.

13

pseudoscience

A fake or false science that makes claims based on little or no scientific evidence.

14

law of conservation of matter

Mass cannot be created or destroyed during a chemical reaction.

15

atom

Smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element

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atomic mass

The average mass of all the isotopes of an element

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atomic number

Number of protons in an atom

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molecule

A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds.

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element

A pure substance made of only one kind of atom

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compound

A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds

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proton

A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

22

nucleus

A cell structure that contains nucleic acids, the chemical instructions that direct all the cell's activities.

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neutron

A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

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electron

A subatomic particle that has a negative charge

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chemical reaction

A process during which chemical bonds between atoms are broken and new ones are formed. Producing one or more different substances.

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activation energy

Energy needed to get a reaction started

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ion

An atom or group of atoms that has gained or lost one or more electrons, thus acquiring a charge.

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isotope

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

29

chemical bonds

Atoms form bonds when their valence electrons interact; covalent, ionic, hydrogen

30

pH scale

measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14. O is most acidic + and 14 is most basic + or akaline.

31

biochemistry

Chemistry dealing with chemical compounds and processes in living plants, animals, fungi, protists, and bacteria

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carbohydrate

Class of organic compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; provide short term or long term energy

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lipid

Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

34

protein

A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids.

35

enzyme

A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction

36

amino acid structure

central carbon, hydrogen atom, amino group, carboxyl group, R group

37

nucleic acid

any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotide chains that are vital constituents of all living cells

38

nucleotide

A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.

39

RNA

A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.

40

DNA

A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.

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gene

A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait

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free energy

Energy that is available to do work

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chemical energy

A form of potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds between atoms.

44

ATP

(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

45

photosynthesis

Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars

46

cellular respiration

Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen

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producer

An organism that can make its own food.

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consumer

An organism that eats other organisms

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decomposer

An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms

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autotroph

Use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.

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heterotroph

An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them.

52

food web

A complex arrangement of interrelated food chains illustrating the flow of energy between interdependent organisms.

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food chain

A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten

54

biotic

Describes living factors in the environment.

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abiotic

Any nonliving component of an environment

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ecosystem

A community of interdependent organisms and the physical environment they inhabit.

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habitat

An area that provides an organism with its basic needs for survival.

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biosphere

All the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living things; sum of all Earth's ecosystems

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biome

A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms

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entropy

A measure of the amount of disorder, chaos or randomness in a system; the greater the disorder, the higher the level of entropy.

61

bioenergetics

(1) The overall flow and transformation of energy in an organism. (2) The study of how energy flows through organisms.

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metabolism

A set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes

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digestion

Breakdown of food substances into monomer form that can be absorbed and used

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biosynthesis

Making of complex molecules/cellular structure

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decomposition

A chemical reaction that breaks down compounds into simpler products.

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exothermic

Chemical Reaction in which energy is primarily given off in the form of heat

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endothermic

Describes a reaction that absorbs energy from the surroundings

68

dehydration synthesis

A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.

69

hydrolysis

Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water

70

cell theory

the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms

71

organelle

A sub unit within a cell that has a specialized function.

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cell parts and functions

Nucleus, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, nuclear membrane, chloroplast, cell wall, etc

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osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

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diffusion

Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

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concentration gradient

A difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance or membrane

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chemiosmosis

An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP. Most ATP synthesis in cells occurs by chemiosmosis.

77

active transport

The movement of a substance across a biological membrane negating its concentration gradient with the help of energy input (ATP) and specific transport proteins.

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passive transport

Requires no energy in the form of ATP; movement of molecules from high to low concentration; moves down the concentration gradient

79

facilitated diffusion

Another type of passive transport, used for molecules that cannot readily diffuse through cell membranes using protein channels or transport proteins

80

endocytosis

Active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell's plasma membrane and releases the contents inside of the cell.

81

exocytosis

A process in which a vesicle inside a cell fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents to the external environment. Transports to outside of cell using ATP

82

pinocytosis

A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.

83

phagocytosis

process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris

84

transpiration

Loss of water from a plant through its leaves

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chloroplast structure

Outer membrane, Inner membrane (thylakoid), stacked thylakoid (grana), solution (stroma)

86

mitochondria structure

Made up of two separate phospholipid membranes. These two membranes make up an outer membrane, outer-mitochondrial matrix, inner membrane and inner matrix. The inner membrane consists of cristae which house proteins used to synthesize ATP.

87

Calvin cycle

reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars

88

light reactions

The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process.

89

photosynthesis equation

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

90

bundle sheath

In C4 plants, a type of photosythetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf.

91

CAM, C3, C4

Types of photosynthesis

92

aerobic respiration equation

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O

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anaerobic respiration

Respiration that does not require oxygen

94

Kreb's cycle

in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy

95

electron transport chain

A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP

96

glycolysis

Catabolism of glucose into 2 pyruvate, 2 molecules of ATP, and 2 molecules of NADH in the absence of oxygen. Occurs with or without oxygen in the cytoplasm.

97

fermentation

A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.

98

brown fat

Fat in the neck and between the shoulders that Is specialized for rapid heat production. Found in infants and newborns, less common in adults.

99

eukaryote

A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

100

prokaryote

A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

101

Watson and Crick

Began to construct a double helix that confirmed Franklins data and later discoveries about DNA.

102

Virchow

All cells come from existing cells

103

Lamarck

Presented first theory of evolution,1809; Believed evolutionary changes were caused by organisms actively adapting themselves to environmental conditions; Ideas disproved by Weissman and Darwin

104

Darwin

A biologist who developed theory of evolution of species (1859). He argued that all living species evolved into their present form through the ability to adapt in a struggle for survival.

105

Dalton

English chemist and physicist who formulated atomic theory and the law of partial pressures

106

Schwann and Schleiden

two men whose work found that all life was made of cells

107

Hooke

British scientist who examined cork through a microscope, coined the term "cell" because what he saw reminded him of the rooms in a monastery

108

Van Leeuwenhoek

First to see organisms under a microscope; animalcules

109

Brown

discovered the nucleus in eukaryotic cells

110

Rosalind Franklin

Woman who generated x-ray images of DNA, she povided Watson and Crick with key data about DNA