Flashcards in BiologyC5Swavely Deck (52):
A series of oxidative reactions by which cells gradually release energy from glucose and transfer it to molecules of ATP
Chemical reactions that require the presence of oxygen
Chemical reactions that do not require oxygen.
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
A chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen,and the substance loses electrons
cell respiration equation
602 + C6H12O6 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
Catabolism of glucose or other monosaccharides to pyruvate and 2 molecules of ATP in the absence of oxygen or presence of oxygen
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) electron carrier involved in glycolysis, oxidized form of NADH
flavin adenine dinucleotide, a compound that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions; oxidized form of FADH2
electron transport system
a series of electron carrier molecules found in the inner membrane of mitochondria, that extract energy from electrons and generate ATP or other energetic molecules.
A molecule that stores energy for harvest by the electron transport chain. Equivalent to 2 ATP
An energy-carrying coenzyme produced by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. NADH carries energy to the electron transport chain, where it is stored in ATP. Equivalent to 3 ATP
lactate (lactic acid)
A 3-Carbon compound produced from pyruvate during anaerobic metabolism.
lactic acid fermentation
Glycolysis followed by the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, with no release of carbon dioxide.
Organelles responsible for ATP generation for cellular activities.
To speed up, change the rate of
acetate (acetic acid)
molecule that enters the Krebs cycle and is carried by CoA
A nonprotein molecule that is required for many cellular reactions involving transfer of acetyl groups (-COCH3).
citrate (citric acid)
A 6-carbon molecule; it is synthesized from oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA in the first step of the Krebs Cycle.
The start point of simple amino acid synthisis, and also a member of the Kreb's cycle. Has 5 carbons
A four-carbon molecule that binds with the two-carbon acetyl unit of acetyl-CoA to form citric acid in the first step of the Krebs cycle.
An iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria
Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. Two molecules form as end products of glycolysis
can live with or without oxygen
An organism that requires oxygen for cellular respiration and cannot live without it.
Cannot survive in the presence of oxygen
A type of yeast anerobic metabolism in which pyruvate is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide for the purpose of regenerating NAD+ to keep glycolysis going and at least yield 2 net ATP.
The transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule.
acetic acid fermentation
If oxygen is in short Supply, the pyruvic acid made in glycolysis will be converted to acetic acid. Bacteria can change alcohol to vinegar
an enzyme complex in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion and the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast that catalyzes the formation of ATP.
Krebs cycle location
location of glycolysis
Foldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondria that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
sequence of reactions triggered by an activated visual pigment molecule that results in signal transduction and amplifies production of the enzyme needed
An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein, thus phosphorylating the protein.
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water
Rate determining enzyme for glycolysis, stimulated by ADP and suppressed by ATP; phosphofructokinase
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
A hormone produced by fat cells that acts in the brain to inhibit hunger and regulate body weight
Making of complex molecules for cellular structure
An extremely poisonous salt of hydrocyanic acid.
ATP made in aerobic respiration
2 net ATP
How many ATP are made in the glycolysis part of cellular respiration
Amount of NADH produced in Krebs cycle
Amount of FADH2 produced in Krebs cycle
Amount of NADH produced in Glycolysis
Main energy source that cells use for most of their work.(adenosine triphosphate)
The removal of CO2 from a molecule
A process occurring in the inner membrane of the mitochondria that results in the formation of ATP from the flow of electrons across the inner membrane to bind with oxygen.