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N320 Biology Honors > BiologyC5Swavely > Flashcards

Flashcards in BiologyC5Swavely Deck (52):
1

cell respiration

A series of oxidative reactions by which cells gradually release energy from glucose and transfer it to molecules of ATP

2

aerobic

Chemical reactions that require the presence of oxygen

3

anaerobic

Chemical reactions that do not require oxygen.

4

metabolism

All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism

5

oxidation

A chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen,and the substance loses electrons

6

cell respiration equation

602 + C6H12O6 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

7

glycolysis

Catabolism of glucose or other monosaccharides to pyruvate and 2 molecules of ATP in the absence of oxygen or presence of oxygen

8

Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)

second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions

9

NAD+

(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) electron carrier involved in glycolysis, oxidized form of NADH

10

FAD

flavin adenine dinucleotide, a compound that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions; oxidized form of FADH2

11

electron transport system

a series of electron carrier molecules found in the inner membrane of mitochondria, that extract energy from electrons and generate ATP or other energetic molecules.

12

FADH2

A molecule that stores energy for harvest by the electron transport chain. Equivalent to 2 ATP

13

NADH

An energy-carrying coenzyme produced by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. NADH carries energy to the electron transport chain, where it is stored in ATP. Equivalent to 3 ATP

14

lactate (lactic acid)

A 3-Carbon compound produced from pyruvate during anaerobic metabolism.

15

lactic acid fermentation

Glycolysis followed by the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, with no release of carbon dioxide.

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mitochondria

Organelles responsible for ATP generation for cellular activities.

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catalyze

To speed up, change the rate of

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acetate (acetic acid)

molecule that enters the Krebs cycle and is carried by CoA

19

coenzyme A

A nonprotein molecule that is required for many cellular reactions involving transfer of acetyl groups (-COCH3).

20

citrate (citric acid)

A 6-carbon molecule; it is synthesized from oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA in the first step of the Krebs Cycle.

21

ketoglutarate

The start point of simple amino acid synthisis, and also a member of the Kreb's cycle. Has 5 carbons

22

oxaloacetate

A four-carbon molecule that binds with the two-carbon acetyl unit of acetyl-CoA to form citric acid in the first step of the Krebs cycle.

23

cytochrome

An iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria

24

pyruvate

Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. Two molecules form as end products of glycolysis

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facultative aerobes

can live with or without oxygen

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obligate aerobes

An organism that requires oxygen for cellular respiration and cannot live without it.

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obligate anaerobes

Cannot survive in the presence of oxygen

28

ethanol fermentation

A type of yeast anerobic metabolism in which pyruvate is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide for the purpose of regenerating NAD+ to keep glycolysis going and at least yield 2 net ATP.

29

phosphorylation

The transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule.

30

acetic acid fermentation

If oxygen is in short Supply, the pyruvic acid made in glycolysis will be converted to acetic acid. Bacteria can change alcohol to vinegar

31

ATP synthetase

an enzyme complex in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion and the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast that catalyzes the formation of ATP.

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matrix

Krebs cycle location

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cytoplasm

location of glycolysis

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cristae

Foldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondria that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.

35

enzyme cascade

sequence of reactions triggered by an activated visual pigment molecule that results in signal transduction and amplifies production of the enzyme needed

36

epinephrine

Adrenalin

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protein kinase

An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein, thus phosphorylating the protein.

38

hydrolysis

Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water

39

PFK

Rate determining enzyme for glycolysis, stimulated by ADP and suppressed by ATP; phosphofructokinase

40

glycogen

An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.

41

leptin

A hormone produced by fat cells that acts in the brain to inhibit hunger and regulate body weight

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biosynthesis

Making of complex molecules for cellular structure

43

cyanide

An extremely poisonous salt of hydrocyanic acid.

44

38 ATP

ATP made in aerobic respiration

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2 net ATP

How many ATP are made in the glycolysis part of cellular respiration

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8 NADH

Amount of NADH produced in Krebs cycle

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2 FADH2

Amount of FADH2 produced in Krebs cycle

48

2 NADH

Amount of NADH produced in Glycolysis

49

ATP

Main energy source that cells use for most of their work.(adenosine triphosphate)

50

decarboxylation

The removal of CO2 from a molecule

51

oxidative phosphorylation

A process occurring in the inner membrane of the mitochondria that results in the formation of ATP from the flow of electrons across the inner membrane to bind with oxygen.

52

substrate level phosphorylation

ATP synthesis is directly coupled with the decomposition of glucose without the participation of an intermediate molecule like NAD⁺ during the Krebs cycle.