Flashcards in Biology C5 RR Adrenaline Deck (28):
What is adrenaline?
What produces adrenaline?
the adrenal glands, located above the kindeys
What does a normal amount of adrenaline do?
a small amount of adrenaline helps maintain normal blood pressure
When are large amounts of adrenaline produced?
during high stress
What are the effects of adrenaline?
- Raises blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to change glycogen into glucose
- Causes fatty tissue to release fat into the blood
- Increases the heart rate
- Increases blood flow to the muscles
- Reduces blood flow to the skin and the intestines
- Widens the bronchioles
- Dilates the pupils
What is the purpose of sudden bursts of adrenaline?
to prepare the body for quick actions, i.e. escaping predators
What is the problem with adrenaline?
If people are overly stressed, they can produce excess adrenaline when not in dangerous situations, which leads to health problems.
What is the term for unexpected acts of extreme stength caused by stressful events?
feats of hysterical strength
What part of the brain is stimulated by stressful events (the stressor)?
What does the hypothalamus region of the brain do?
regulates stress and relaxation
What does the hypothalamus do when it is stimulated by stress?
sends signals to the adrenal glands which activate the sympathetic system
What does the sympathetic system do?
puts the body into an excited state
What are the two hormones released by the adrenal glands during stressful events?
adrenaline and noradrenaline
What is the alternate name for adrenaline?
What is the alternate name for noradrenaline?
What do adrenaline and noradrenaline do?
raise heart rate, increase respiration, dilate the pupils, slow down digestion and -- perhaps most importantly -- allow muscles to contract
What is adrenaline's effect on muscles?
Adrenaline allows muscles to contract more than they can when at rest, and allows blood to flow more easily to the muscles. Thirdly, it speeds the creation of glucose from glycogen, providing more energy for the muscles.
What specific region of the adrenal glands that releases adrenaline?
the adrenal medulla
What bodily reaction supports the theory that adrenaline allows humans to use their muscles more than they usually can?
When people ar e electrocuted, they are thrown back by their muscles contracting.
Why can people only have extreme strength when they are confronted with danger?
constant agitation and strength can be harmful
Why must muscle strength be built up over time?
sudden bursts of strength can tear muscles or disalign joints
What is the term for the human reaction to stressful situations?
general adaptation syndrome
What are the three stages of the general adaptation syndome?
1. alarm reaction
2. stage of resistance
3. state of exhaustion
What happens during the alarm reaction stage of the general adaptation syndrome?
When the body encounters stress, it prepares to fight the danger or escape.
What happens during the stage of resistance in the general adaptation syndrome?
The sympathetic system allows the body to react quickly and take whatever action is needed.
What happens during the state of exhaustion in the general adaptation syndrome?
The body is stuck in hyperarousal for too long, and the persons immune system is worn down.
What is the parasympathetic system?
a bodily system that reverses the effects of the sympathetic system and calms the body down after stress