Biology8.1-8.2Quiz Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology8.1-8.2Quiz Deck (32):
1

location of DNA in prokaryotic cells

attached to a nucleoid

2

name for the asexual process in which prokaryotic cells divide

binary fission

3

phase of binary fission in which DNA is copied

DNA replication

4

phase of binary fission in which the cell separates into two daugther cells

cytokinesis

5

asexual reproduction

reproduction that does not involve the exchange of genetic material between two organisms

6

sexual reproduction

reproduction that involves the exchangeof genetic material

7

conjugation

a primitive form of sexual reproduction in which genetic material is exchanged without forming a new organism

8

the name of the cell that starts with a plasmid in conjugation

donor

9

the name of the cell that recieves a plasmid in conjugation

recipient

10

shaft that helps connect cells during conjugation

pilus

11

advantages of asexual reproduction

- requires less energy
- offspring will share the adaptations of the parent

12

advatages of sexual reproduction

- allows for diversity in the characteristics of your offspring
- some offspring may be better suited to their enviroment than their parents

13

When do bateria use asexual and sexual reproduction?

Bacteria use sexual reproduction when the enviroment is changing, and use asexual reproduction in stable conditions.

14

chromosome

condensed form of DNA formed by DNA wrapping around histone proteins

15

histone proteins

positively charged proteins that are wrapped with negatively charged DNA phosphates

16

nucleosome

a DNA-protein complex consisting of 8 histone proteins and DNA wrapped around them

17

name for DNA bound to nucleosomes

choromatin

18

Why does DNA coil around histone proteins?

to form a compact structure that can fit inside a nucleus

19

average length of human DNA in one cell

5 cm

20

number of chromosomes in human cells (except RBC and sex cells)

46 chromosomes

21

three stages of the cell cycle

Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis

22

phases of the Interphase

G1 Phase, S Phase, G2 Phase

23

G1 Phase

- cells spend most of their life in this phase
- proteins and RNA are synthesized

24

G0 Phase

entered when the cell stops dividing in G1

25

restriction point

chemical signal received in G1 or G0 that signals "the point of no return"

26

S Phase

DNA is synthesized through DNA replication

27

G2 Phase

- cell prepares for division
- proteins and RNA are synthesized
- organelles replicate
- microtubles and microfilaments organize into spindle fibers

28

Interphase

- the period between when cells divide
- chromosomes are loosely coiled and cannot be seen individually
- nuclear membrane is present

29

Mitotic phase

Also known as the M phase, contains both mitosis and cytokinesis.

30

Mitosis

- division of the nucleus
- chromosomes can be seen individually
- each daughter cell receives one copy of each chromosome

31

Cytokinesis

the division of the entire cell

32

Cytokinesis is included in...

the Mitotic phase (also known as the M phase) but not mitosis.