BiologyUnit2VocabFlashcards Preview

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Flashcards in BiologyUnit2VocabFlashcards Deck (34):
1

atp

adenosine triphosphate; a compound that has three phosphate groups and is used by cells to store energy and to fuel many metabolic processes

2

adp

adenosine diphosphate; the compound that remains when a phosphate group is removed from ATP, releasing energy

3

oxidation

loss of electrons

4

reduction

gain of electrons

5

digestion

the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed by the body

6

extracellular digestion

the breakdown of nutrient molecules outside of cells

7

intracellular digestion

the breakdown of nutrients within a cell

8

saliva

liquid secreted in the mouth; begins mechanical and chemical digestion

9

peristalsis

the rhythmic waves of contraction of the smooth muscle that pushes food through the digestive tract

10

salivary amylase

an enzyme in saliva that begins digestion of starch into disaccharides

11

gastrin

a digestive hormone secreted by the stomach lining; stimulates the secretion of fluid by gastric glands in the stomach

12

pepsin

a protein-splitting enzyme secreted by the gastric glands of the stomach

13

trypsin

an enzyme in the pancreatic juice that breaks down protein molecules

14

bile

a secretion of the liver stored in the gallbladder and released through a duct in the small intestine; breaks large fat droplets into smaller ones that enzymes can act on more efficiently

15

lipase

a fat-digesting enzyme

16

villi

a fingerlike projection of the small intestine that increases surface area for absorption of digested food

17

capillaries

microscopic blood vessels penetrating the tissues and consisting of a single layer of cells that allows exchange between the blood and tissue fluids

18

symbiosis

a close connection between two different living creatures from which both usually get benefits

19

mutualism

the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each benefits from the other

20

carrying capacity

the maximum number of individuals that a given environment can support without detrimental effects

21

limiting factor

an environmental factor that tends to limit population size

22

homeostasis

the ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes

23

nervous system

the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells

24

integumentary system

the skin and its appendages

25

endocrine system

the system of glands that produce endocrine secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity

26

organelle

a specialized part of a cell

27

organism

a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently

28

organ

a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function

29

organ system

a group of organs that work together to preform a common task

30

population

a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area

31

community

a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other

32

ecosystem

a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment

33

biome

a major biotic community characterized by the dominant forms of plant life and the prevailing climate

34

biosphere

the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist