BiologyC3Swavely Flashcards Preview

N320 Biology Honors > BiologyC3Swavely > Flashcards

Flashcards in BiologyC3Swavely Deck (56):
1

phospholipid

A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.

2

osmosis

Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

3

cell membrane

A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.

4

diffusion

Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

5

selectively permeable

A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot

6

concentration gradient

A difference in concentration between two areas.

7

active transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane using ATP

8

passive transport

Requires no ATP; movement of molecules from high to low concentration, moves down the concentration gradient

9

symport

A membrane transport process that carries two substances in the same direction across the membrane.

10

antiport

A membrane transport process that carries one substance in one direction and another in the opposite direction.

11

facilitated diffusion

Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels

12

aquaporin

A transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane

13

turgor pressure

Pressure that is exerted on the inside of cell walls and that is caused by the movement of water into the cell

14

transport protein

A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane.

15

cytoplasm

The fluid and the organelles inside the cell

16

cytosol

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

17

glycoprotein

A protein with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates.

18

glycolipid

carbohydrates covalently bonded to lipids

19

polar

Describes a molecule with opposite charges on opposite ends.

20

nonpolar

a molecule in which all atoms have the same electronegativity and the electron distribution is equal

21

cholesterol

A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.

22

hypertonic

Having a higher concentration of solute than another solution.

23

isotonic

Describes a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell

24

hypotonic

A solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than another.

25

phagocytosis

A type of endocytosis in which cells engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris

26

pinocytosis

A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.

27

endocytosis

Cellular uptake of biological molecules and particulate matter via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane. Active transport

28

exocytosis

An active transport mechanism by which substances are moved from the cell interior to the extracellular space as a secretory vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane.

29

receptor-mediated endocytosis

The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.

30

coupled reaction

reactions that occur in the same place, at the same time, and in such a way that an energy-releasing (exergonic) reaction drives an energy requiring (endergonic) reaction.

31

gills

Extensions of the body containing thin-walled blood vessels that allow for easy absorption of oxygen from the outside surface

32

counter current exchange

2 substances (blood & water) flowing in opposite directions of each other that maximize a gradient for exchange

33

spiracles

breathing tubes of insects located on abdomen

34

stomata

A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.

35

guard cells

The two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore.

36

transpiration

Process by which water that is absorbed by plants, usually through the roots, is evaporated into the atmosphere

37

respiratory system

A system of organs, functioning in the process of gas exchange between the body and the environment, consisting especially of the nose, nasal passages, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

38

lung

pair of spongy organs of respiration in which blood is aerated

39

diaphragm

Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing

40

intercostals

A group of several muscles that run in between the ribs. Help expand and shrink the size of the chest cavity when you breathe.

41

scalenes

3 muscles on each side of neck; that help with breathing

42

alveoli

tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood

43

cuticle

A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.

44

homeostasis

A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

45

contractile vacuole

saclike organelles that expand to collect excess water and contract to squeeze the water out of the cell

46

lysis

destruction of cells such as blood cells or bacteria

47

urea

A waste product of protein breakdown, produced by the liver and relased into the bloodstream to be eliminated by the kidney.

48

uric acid

An insoluble precipitate of nitrogenous waste excreted by land snails, insects, birds, & some reptiles

49

kidney

Filters waste from the blood like urea, water, salt and proteins.

50

nephron

Functional unit of the kidney

51

glomerulus

A ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of filtration in the vertebrate kidney.

52

loop of henle

-u-shaped turn located in the convoluted tubule of the kidney located between the proximal & distal tubule

53

adrenal gland

A pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones such as aldosterone

54

aldosterone

Potassium-releasing hormone. Acts on the protein gates of the DCT and prevents hyperkalemia.

55

anti-diuretic hormone

A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that increases the permeability of cells membranes, so they absorb more water, especially from urine, that results in small amounts of concentrated urine

56

urinary system

a system that helps maintain the water and electrolyte (sodium, chloride, potassium) balance within the body; regulates the acid-base balance of the blood, and removes nitrogen-containing wastes (byproducts of the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids) from the body.