Flashcards in BiologyC3Swavely Deck (56):
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
A difference in concentration between two areas.
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using ATP
Requires no ATP; movement of molecules from high to low concentration, moves down the concentration gradient
A membrane transport process that carries two substances in the same direction across the membrane.
A membrane transport process that carries one substance in one direction and another in the opposite direction.
Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
A transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane
Pressure that is exerted on the inside of cell walls and that is caused by the movement of water into the cell
A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane.
The fluid and the organelles inside the cell
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
A protein with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates.
carbohydrates covalently bonded to lipids
Describes a molecule with opposite charges on opposite ends.
a molecule in which all atoms have the same electronegativity and the electron distribution is equal
A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
Having a higher concentration of solute than another solution.
Describes a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
A solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than another.
A type of endocytosis in which cells engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
Cellular uptake of biological molecules and particulate matter via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane. Active transport
An active transport mechanism by which substances are moved from the cell interior to the extracellular space as a secretory vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane.
The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.
reactions that occur in the same place, at the same time, and in such a way that an energy-releasing (exergonic) reaction drives an energy requiring (endergonic) reaction.
Extensions of the body containing thin-walled blood vessels that allow for easy absorption of oxygen from the outside surface
counter current exchange
2 substances (blood & water) flowing in opposite directions of each other that maximize a gradient for exchange
breathing tubes of insects located on abdomen
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
The two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore.
Process by which water that is absorbed by plants, usually through the roots, is evaporated into the atmosphere
A system of organs, functioning in the process of gas exchange between the body and the environment, consisting especially of the nose, nasal passages, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
pair of spongy organs of respiration in which blood is aerated
Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing
A group of several muscles that run in between the ribs. Help expand and shrink the size of the chest cavity when you breathe.
3 muscles on each side of neck; that help with breathing
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
saclike organelles that expand to collect excess water and contract to squeeze the water out of the cell
destruction of cells such as blood cells or bacteria
A waste product of protein breakdown, produced by the liver and relased into the bloodstream to be eliminated by the kidney.
An insoluble precipitate of nitrogenous waste excreted by land snails, insects, birds, & some reptiles
Filters waste from the blood like urea, water, salt and proteins.
Functional unit of the kidney
A ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of filtration in the vertebrate kidney.
loop of henle
-u-shaped turn located in the convoluted tubule of the kidney located between the proximal & distal tubule
A pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones such as aldosterone
Potassium-releasing hormone. Acts on the protein gates of the DCT and prevents hyperkalemia.
A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that increases the permeability of cells membranes, so they absorb more water, especially from urine, that results in small amounts of concentrated urine