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Flashcards in Biostats/Ethics Deck (28)
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1

good screening test

sensitive tests (negative results are reliable)

2

PPV increases as

prevalence increases

3

negative predictive value is most useful when

prevalence is low

4

null hypothesis

by chance

5

goal of research

reject the null hypothesis

6

the chance the null hypothesis was rejected due to error

p value

7

type 1 error

p value - rejected the null hypothesis in error

8

type 2 error

accepted the null hypothesis in error (deemed study not significant even though it was)

9

internal validity reflects

accuracy

10

external validity reflects

generalizability

11

whether a test actually measures what it is intended to measure

validity

12

consistency or repeatability of scores

reliability

13

absolute risk reduction

rate in untreated group - rate in treated group

14

number needed to treat

1/rate in untreated - rate in treated (1/ARR)

15

number of newly diagnosed cases in a period of time

incidence

16

total number of cases that exist in a population

prevalence

17

strongest to weakest studies

randomized controlled, cohort, case-control, cross-sectional, case study

18

comparing a group with an exposure to a group without an exposure

cohort study

19

limitations of cohort study

requires large sample size, expensive and requires a long time period

20

check for risk factors in a patient with the disease and a patient without

case-control study

21

study that is useful with small sample sizes, long latency periods or rare outcomes

case-control studies

22

observational study looking for associations between two factors at one point in time

cross-sectional study

23

conditions that growth hormone is FDA approved for

prader-willi, Turner syndrome and chronic renal insufficiency

24

near miss

an error that does not cause harm

25

sentinel event

unexpected death or serious injury during medical care

26

statistical parameter that refers to how well a test correctly identifies those in a population with a given disease

sensitivity

27

parameter that identifies how well a test rules in those in a population who have a given disease

specificity

28

measure that helps determine the usefulness of a screening test

positive predictive value