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Flashcards in Fluids & Electrolytes Deck (104)
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1

serum osmolality equation

2 x Na + BUN/2.8 + glucose/18

2

normal serum osmolality

265-285

3

formula to correct metabolic acidosis

weight x 0.3 x base deficit

4

acidemia pH

<7.36

5

alkalemia pH

>7.44

6

bicarb in metabolic alkalosis

>25

7

bicarb in metabolic acidosis

<25

8

CO2 in respiratory alkalosis

<40

9

CO2 in respiratory acidosis

>40

10

primary cause of respiratory acidosis

hypoventilation (elevated CO2) ex: CNS disease

11

primary cause of respiratory alkalosis

hyperventilation (low CO2) ex: pneumonia

12

leading cause of metabolic acidosis

diarrhea

13

common causes of metabolic alkalosis

vomiting, prolonged NG suction, pyloric stenosis and CF

14

lab findings of pyloric stenosis

hypochloremic hypokalemia metabolic alkalosis

15

pH in pyloric stenosis

high

16

serum chloride in pyloric stenosis

low

17

serum potassium in pyloric stenosis

low

18

serum sodium in pyloric stenosis

low

19

bilirubin in pyloric stenosis

high

20

anion gap calculation

sodium - (chloride + bicarb)

21

normal anion gap

8 to 12 (chloride is elevated)

22

causes of acidosis with normal anion gap

diarrhea, RTA

23

type 1 RTA aka

distal RTA

24

job of proximal tubule

retains bicarb

25

job of distal tubule

secrete H+

26

type 1 RTA issue

not secreting H+ into urine resulting in hyperchloremic, hypokalemic metabolic acidosis

27

type 1 RTA urine pH

>5.5

28

type 2 RTA issue

losing excess bicarb in urine (not taking it back up)

29

type 2 RTA urine pH

<5.5 (distal is still functioning and secreting H+)

30

type 2 RTA mimicker

acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor)