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Flashcards in Urology Deck (129)
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1

when to refer infants with undescended testicles to urology

at 3 to 6 months

2

treatment for undescended testicle

orchiopexy by 12 to 18 months if still undescended

3

non palpable testes in a newborn management

urology evaluation and testicular US prior to discharge

4

syndromes associated with hypospadias

SLOB
Silver Russell syndrome
Laurence Moon Biedl syndrome
Opitz syndrome
Beckwith wiedmann syndrome

5

hypospadias management

no circumcision and surgical correction at 6 months

6

diagnosis of boy with micropenis, poor feeding and hypotonia

prader-willi syndrome

7

diagnosis with unilateral scrotal pain, dysuria and fever, no scrotal mass

epididymitis

8

testicular mass evaluation

bilateral US, LDH, b-HCG and alpha-fetoprotein levels

9

microscopic hematuria definition

5 or more RBCs per hpf in 3 centrifuged samples of freshly voided urine obtained over several weeks

10

microscopic hematuria mangement

repeat in a few weeks and if persistent check for hypercalciuria with urine Ca/Cr ratio ...also monitor for HTN and proteinuria

11

persistent microscopic hematuria work up

urine Ca/Cr ratio looking for hypercalciuria
- If >0.35 check 24 hour total calcium excretion (if >4 get renal US looking for stone)
- If <0.25 check BUN, Cr, electrolytes

12

most likely cause of red/pink discoloration in diaper of newborn

urate crystals

13

causes of gross hematuria

HSP, Hereditary nephritis
Easy benign familial
Membranoproliferative
Alport, IgA
Trauma
UPJ obstruction
Renal stones
Infectious (post, ex: strep)
Abnormal blood cells (ex: sickle cell)

14

most common stones in kids

calcium stones (increased risk w/ distal RTA, hyperclaciuria from hyperPTH, hypercalcemia, loop diuretics)

15

initial diagnostic study for renal stones

xray or US

16

xray will not se what stones

uric acid stones (radiolucent), small stones and stones over bone

17

stone size that may need percutaneous nephrolithotomy

>5 mm

18

long term treatment for kids with stones

increased fluid intake and restricting salt intake (if still not responding then thiazide diuretic)

19

orthostatic proteinuria diagnosis

first void spot urine will show no proteinuria but during the day urine will have it, if Cr is fine then check in 3 months

20

causes of transient proteinuria

fever, exercise, dehydration

21

persistent orthostatic proteinuria management

if still occurring after 3 months then check protein/creatinine ratio (if >0.2 suggests renal disease)

22

first symptom of Alport's

hematuria by age 6

23

initial kidney US in alports

normal - progresses to renal failure

24

most commonly palpated renal mass in infants

hydronephrotic kidneys 2/2 UPJ obstruction and multi cystic dysplastic kidneys

25

enlarged kidney with non-communicating cysts with thin or no parenchyma and dysplasia

multicystic dysplastic kidney disease

26

bilateral kidney masses and signs of portal hypertension

autosomal receive polycystic kidney disease

27

most common cause of urinary retention in females

utererocele

28

palpable bladder and weak urinary stream in newborn

posterior urethral valves

29

prenatal US with bilateral hydronephrosis and reduced renal parenchyma

posterior urethral valves

30

diagnosis with bilateral hydronephrosis, undescended testicles and poor anterior abdominal wall musculature

prune belly syndrome (aka eagle barrett syndrome)