Flashcards in BiSci Ch. 2 Deck (63):
refers to anything that takes up space and has mass. can exist as a solid, liquid, or a gas.
one of the basic building blocks of matter; it cannot be broken down by chemical means.
is the smallest unit of an element still remains the chemical and physical properties of the element.
the circle around the nucleus, where the average location of electrons
number of protons within the nucleus of the atom.
is the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
the number below the atomic symbol on the periodic table. is the average of the AMU for all the isotopes of that atom.
of the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
atoms often bond with one another to form a chemical unit.
substance having two or more different elements united chemically in a fixed ratio.
are particles that carry either a positive or negative charge.
atoms share electrons thru this.
Combination of atoms in which the electrical charge is not distributed symmetrically.
weak bond that arises between a slightly positive hydrogen atom of one molecule and a slightly negative atom of another, or between parts of the same molecule.
is the amount of heat energy of food.
contains dissolved substances, which are then called solutes.
type of molecule that does not interact with water bc it is non polar.
are substances that either take up hydrogen ions or release hydrogen ions.
is used to indicate the acidity or basicity of a solution.
substance or group of substances that tend to resist pH changes of a solution, thus stabilizing its relative acidity or basicity.
type of molecule that contains canon and hydrogen- and often contains oxygen also.
a molecule that contains many subunits, it uses dehydration reaction, a type of synthesis reaction.
the components of water are added during the breaking of the bond between molecules.
class of organic compounds that includes monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
simple sugar; a carb that cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis.
six-carbon sugar that organisms degrade as a source of energy during cellular respiration.
is made by joining only two monosaccharides together by dehydration reaction.
polymer made from sugar monomers; the starch and glycogen are polymers glucose monomers.
storgage polysaccharide found in plants; composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear fashion with few side chains
storage polysaccharide composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear fashion but having numerous branches.
also known as fiber; polysaccharide that is the major complex carb in plant cell walls.
class of organic compounds that tends to be soluble only in non polar solvents such as alcohol; includes fats and oils. (not soluble in water)
substance, usually of a plant origin and liquid at room temp, formed when a glycerol molecule reacts with three fatty acid molecules.
breaking up of fat globules into smaller droplets by the action of bile salts or any other emulsifier.
neutral fat composed of glycerol and three fatty acids.
molecule that contains a hydrocarbon chain and ends with an acid group.
Saturated Fatty Acids
fatty acid molecule that lacks double bonds between the atoms of its carbon chain.
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
fatty acid molecule that has one or more double bonds between the atoms of its carbon chain.
fats, which occur naturally in meat and dairy products of ruminants, that are also industrially created thru partial hydrogen of plant oils and animal fats
lipid molecule that forms the bilayer of the cell`s membranes; has a polar, hydrophilic to two non polar, hydrophobic tails.
type of lipid molecule having a complex of four carbon rings; examples are cholesterol, progesterone, and testosterone.
molecule consisting of two or more polypeptides.
organic molecule having an amino group and an acid group, which covalently bonds to produce peptide molecules.
the covalent bond between two amino acids
when three or more amino acids are linked by peptide bonds
loss of normal shape by enzyme so that it no longer functions; caused by less than optimal pH or temp.
the first level of protein organization. is the linear sequence of the amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
the second level of protein organization. a protein comes about when the polypeptide takes on a certain orientation in space.
of a protein, is its final three dimensional shape.
fourth level of protein structure.
are polymers of nucleotides, store info, include instructions for life, and conduct chemical reactions.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
nucleic acid polymer produced from covalent boning of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar deoxyribose; the genetic material of nearly all organisms.
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
nucleic acid produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar ribose; occurs in three major forms
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
nucleotide with three phosphate groups. the breakdown of this into ADP+P makes energy available for energy-requiring processes in cells.
nonprotein organic molecules that help regulate enzymatic reactions.
monomer of DNA and RNA consisting of a 5-carbon sugar bounded to a nitrogen-containing base and phosphate group.
Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), Cytosine, Uracil (U)
the nitrogen bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and RNA.
the nucleotides line to make a polynucleotide, which is the backbone make up of phosphate-sugar-phosphate-sugar.
Complementary Base Pairing
hydrogen bonding between particular bases; in DNA (T pairs with A, and G pairs with C) in RNA (U pairs with A, and G pairs with C).