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Flashcards in SKELETAL SYSTEM (1) Deck (54):
1

bone

living connective tissue composed of a hard matrix material and bone cells

2

compact bone

mineralized matrix that gives great strength to bone tissue

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spongy bone

spaces filled with red marrow found on the ends of long bones with flat bones

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cartilage

flexible connective tissue not as strong as bone tissue

5

hyaline cartilage

ends of long bones, nose, ends of ribs, larynx and trachea

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fibrocartilage

disks between vertebrae and in the knee and is stronger than hyaline cartilage

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elastic cartilage

ear flaps and epiglottis and is more flexible than hyaline cartilage

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fibrous connective tissue

contains rows of cells called fibroblasts separated by bundles of collagenous fibers

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ligaments

attach bone at joints

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tendons

attach muscle to bone

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periosteum

covering the bone contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves and is continuous with ligaments and tendons

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red bone marrow

makes blood cells; found in spongy bone and flat bones

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periosteum

living, outer covering of fibrous connective tissue

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ligaments

fibrous connective tissue that connects bones

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osteoblasts (bone cell)

bone-forming cells

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osteocytes (bone cell)

mature bone cells and maintain the structure of the bone

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osteoclasts (bone cell)

bone-absorbing cells

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intramembranous ossification

bones develop between sheets of fibrous connective tissue like the cranium

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endochondral ossification

bone replaces cartilage as do most bones of the skeleton

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Bone repair

1. hematoma (6-8 hrs) -a mass of clotted blood
2. fibrocartilaginous (3 weeks) -fibrocartilage fills spaces between broken bones
3. bony callus (3-4 months) -fibrocartilage is replaced by bone tissue
4. remodeling -old bone tissue is replaced by new bone tissue

21

endoskeleton

internal body framework
-supports and gives shape to the body
-protects soft body parts
-stores minerals and fat
-along with muscles, permits flexible body movement

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axial skeleton

lies in the midline of the body
-skull
-hyoid bone

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33 vertebrae

vertebral column consists of

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atlas

1st cervical vertebrae and holds up the head

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cervical vertebrae

7 neck vertebrae

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thoracic vertebrae

12 chest vertebrae (protects the spinal cord)

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lumbar vertebrae

5 abdominal vertebrae

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sternum

breastbone; is composed of the manubrium (the handle), the body (the blade), and the xiphoid process

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appendicular skeleton

consists of the bones within the pectoral and pelvic girdles and their attached limbs

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fibrous (joint)

usually immovable (such as the sutures between cranial bones)

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cartilaginous (joint)

tend to be slightly movable (such as the intervertebral disks)

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synovial (joint)

freely moveable joints (such as the ball and socket hip and shoulder joints, and the hinge knee and elbow joints)

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synovial membrane

produces synovial fluid, and excellent lube for the joints

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flexion

decreases the joint angle

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extension

increases the joint angle

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adduction

movement of the body toward the midline

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abduction

movement of the body away from the midline

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rotation

movement of the body part around its own axis

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circumduction

movement of the body part in a wide circle

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supination

the rotation of the lower arm so that the palm is upward

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pronation

the rotation of the lower arm so that the palm is downward

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osteoporosis

bones are weakened due to a decreased bone mass, can lead to fractures.
-can be treated with drugs, hormones, and life choices

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osteoarthritis

deterioration of cartilage at bone joints

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humerus

bone of the upper arm

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radius

the shorter of the two long bones of the forearm

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ulna

the longer of the two bones of the forearm

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femur

the thigh bone, the longest bone in the body

48

patella

the technical name for the kneecap, the triangular-shaped bone at the front of the knee joint

49

tibia

the inner and thicker of the two long bones in the lower leg. It is also called the shin bone.

50

fibula

the outer and thinner of the two long bones of the lower leg. It is much narrower than the other bone (the shin), to which it runs parallel and to which it is attached at both ends by ligaments.

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clavicle

collarbone

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scapula

shoulder blade

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zygomatic bone

cheek bone

54

mandible

lower jaw bone