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Flashcards in BISCI FINAL EXAM Deck (109):
1

isotonic solutions

the water is equal inside and outside the cell

2

metabolism

includes the sum of the chemical reactions that occur within a cell

3

homeostasis

the ability of living things to maintain an internal environment that operates under specific conditions

4

isotopes

differ due to the number of neutrons

5

acidic solution

the number of H+ is greater than the number of OH-

6

formed elements and plasma

blood is composed of what

7

hemoglobin

RBC contain this that carries oxygen to the bloodstream

8

atomic number

proteins are the same # as

9

a buffer

maintains the pH within a normal range which is required for homeostasis

10

positive feedback system

results in increasing change in the same direction

11

platelets

clotting of the blood

12

WBC

blood dealing with immune system

13

neutral

p+ = e-

14

pH scale

ranges 0-14

15

7

neutral number on pH scale

16

0-7

acid on pH scale
-pH down
-H+ up
-OH- down

17

7-14

basic on pH scale
-pH up
-H+ down
-OH- up

18

negative feedback

system that results in change in opposite direction

19

O-

dude has type O- blood and needs transfusion, what type of blood can he receive?

20

1. right atrium
2. right ventricle
3. pulm arteries
4. lungs
5. pulm veins
6. left atrium
7. left ventricle
8. aorta

passage thru heart (8)

21

1. glomerulus
2. proximal convoluted tubule
3. descending limb of loop
4. ascending limb of loop
5. distal convoluted tubule
6. collecting duct

nephron in order of how filtration would occur (6)

22

he will have both B antigens and Rh antigens on his RBC, and antibodies against A

dude has type B blood, what will his blood contain?

23

passive immunity

-an injection of serum that contains antibodies (taking antibiotics)
-immunoglobulin injections
-breast feeding
-cytonkines
-monoclonal antibodies

24

active immunity

involves making your own antibodies against an antigen, whether it is introduced via infection(exposure) or a vaccination
-recovery from disease
-vaccines
-dependent on the presence of memory B and T cells

25

surfactant

what is missing in infant respiratory distress syndrome?

26

1. mouth
2. pharynx
3. esophagus
4. stomach
5. small intestine
6. large intestine
7. rectum
8. anus

digestive system (8)

27

BMI

gives you an idea of how much of your weight is due to adipose tissue (body fat). this can vary depending on your fitness, bone structure, or gender

28

increasing CO2

when breathing into a paper bag after hyperventilating, are you increasing or decreasing CO2?

29

hypovent

breathing too slow (CO2 up)

30

hypervent

breathing too fast (CO2 down)

31

urinary system

filters out bloodstream

32

kidney

wants to keep glucose

33

arteries

taking away blood from heart

34

veins

putting blood into heart

35

atrium

two top layers of heart

36

ventricles

two bottom layers of heart

37

right

blood enters heart on left or right?

38

pancreas

both insulin and glucagon are secreted by ---------- directly into the bloodstream

39

1. hematoma
2. fibrocartilage callus
3. bony callas
4. remodeling

4 steps of bone repair

40

the blood glucose levels are very high in both

what does type 1 and 2 diabetes have in common

41

exocrine gland

pancreas delivers its product thru a duct

42

endocrine gland

pancreas delivers its product to the bloodstream

43

ATP

energy protein

44

nearsighted

can see close objects better

45

farsighted

can see objects better at a distance

46

insulin

is secreted when the blood glucose level is high

47

tendons

connects muscle to bone

48

ligaments

connects bone to bone

49

interneurons

CNS reflex artery

50

sensory neurons

bring info into the CNS

51

motor neurons

decides to react from the CNS

52

cones

detects color in retina layer

53

rods

detects shapes and outlines in the retina layer

54

karyotype

a display of chromosomes

55

nervous system

first system to become visibly differentiated

56

fertilization

the union of the sperm and egg

57

pap test

early detection of cervical cancer by what test

58

implantation

embryonic development begins at

59

non-disfunction

the failure of chromosomes to separate during anti phase

60

23 pairs

how many chromosomes does a human have

61

bacterial and curable

chlamydia is what type of infection

62

gene expression

describes how cells display their genetic characteristics

63

fetal development

development that is after embryo implants and last from the 3rd thru the 9th month

64

virus and not curable

genital herps is what type of infection

65

phenotype

physical appearance

66

zygote

results from the union of a sperm with 23 chrome and an egg with 23 chrome

67

meiosis

cuts chromosomes in 1/2
-interphase
-cell division
=cell cycle

68

mitosis

growth and repair

69

DNA

-double stranded
-deoxyribose

70

RNA

-single stranded
-ribose

71

transcription

copy DNA

72

translation

read copy of DNA

73

innate

nonspecific pathogen

74

active immunity

specific pathogen (T and B lymph)

75

20 years

emerging disease

76

T cells

HIV virus target what helper cells

77

virus no cure

genital warts is what type of infection

78

bacterial with a cure

gonneria is what type of infection

79

carcinomas or melanoma

cancers of the epithelial tissue

80

1. change in bowl or bladder habits
2. a sore that does not heal
3. unusual bleeding or discharge
4. thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
5. indigestion or difficulty swallowing
6. obvious change in wart/mole
7. nagging cough or hoarseness

7 warning signs of cancer

81

1. A-symmetry
2. border
3. color
4. diameter

4 things to check in moles

82

monthly

self exam yourself for cancer how often

83

age 50

you should begin to get checked for colon cancer at what age

84

gonorrhea

STD resistant to antibiotic therapy

85

HPV

genital warts is caused by what

86

epidemics

more cases of the disease than expected in a certain area for a certain period, more widespread

87

outbreak

the epidemic is confined to a local area

88

pandemic

a disease that occurs worldwide, a global epidemic

89

virus

-acellular (not composed of cells)
-obligate parasites (must replicate inside a living cell)
-made of capsid and inner core

90

Phase of HIV infection
Category A

-acute phase
-asymptomatic but highly infectious

91

Phase of HIV infection
Category B

-chronic phase
-has one or more of a variety of symptoms related to an impaired immune system

92

Phase of HIV infection
Category C

-AIDS
-has one or more of the opportunistic infections that eventually cause death

93

HIV

-made up of two single strands of RNA
-enveloped with spikes
-carries three enzymes (reverse transcriptase, intergrase, protease)
-treated with drug therapy and vaccines

94

Bacteria

-10x larger than viruses and are prokaryotypes
-cellular but lack membrane-bound nucleus

95

opportunistic pathogen

when it penetrates the skin or invades other parts of the body, a staph infection may result

96

tuberculosis

-caused by rod-shaped bacterium
-spread thru cough, sings, or sneezes
-lasts 4-12 weeks
-it takes at least 6 months to kill all the bacteria in the body

97

malaria

-transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito
-flu like symptoms

98

immune system

consists of lymphatic organs, tissues, and cells as well as products of these cells

99

red bone marrow

-primary lymphatic organ
-site of stem cells that are capable of dividing and producing blood cells

100

thymus gland

-primary lymphatic organ
-where T lymphs mature

101

spleen

-secondary lymph organ
-lymphocytes react to pathogens and macropages engulf debris and remove any old, worn out RBC

102

lymph nodes

-secondary lymph organ
-T lymphocytes fight infection and attack cancer cells and macrophages engulf pathogens and debris

103

tonsils

-secondary lymph organ
-first to encounter pathogens and foreign antigens

104

peyer`s patches

-secondary lymph organ
-encounter pathogens that enter the body by way of the intestinal tract

105

innate

non-specific defenses

106

1. skin
2. mucus membrane
3. sebum
4. ciliated cells
5. HCL
6. normal flora

non-specific defenses barriers (6)
1. effective if unbroken
2. mucus traps germs and debris
3. contains chemicals that weaken or kill certain bacteria on the skin
4. sweep mucus and trapped particles up into the throat
5. inhibits growth and kills many types of bacteria
6. keeps pathogens from taking up residence

107

inflammatory reaction "call to arms"

sends phagocytic WBC to the site of bacterial invasion and stimulates the immune system to react against a possible infection
-neutrophils
-macrophages

108

compliment proteins

plasma proteins that poke holes in bacterial walls allowing fluids and salts to enter until the cell eventually bursts

109

T-cells

provide cell mediated immunity (CMI) and are unable to recognize foreign antigens without help