PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE (4) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE (4) Deck (22):
1

genotype

specific genes for a particular trait (must be written in symbols)

2

dominant gene

will be expressed and will mask the recessive gene (Bb Tt Ao Bo Ff)

3

recessive gene

only shows up when homozygous recessive (bb tt oo ff)

4

alleles

genes for contrasting traits (Bb Tt Ao Bo)

5

homozygous

identical genes in a pair (bb/ BB)

6

heterozygous

different genes in a pair (Bb/ Ao)

7

phenotype

outward appearance of the offspring (written out in words)
-Bb: brown eyes
-Tt: tongue roller
-Ao: type A blood
-Ff: freckles
-bb: blue eye color
-tt: non tongue roller
-oo: type O blood
-ff: fair skin color

8

punnett square

-are the use of a grid to diagram crosses between individuals by using the possible parental gametes
-these allow one to determine the probability that an offspring will have a particular genotype and phenotype

9

monohybrid cross

an experimental cross in which parents are identically heterozygous at 1 gene pair
(Aa x Aa)

10

multifactoral trait

a polygenic trait that is particularly influenced by the environment
-skin color influenced by sun exposure
-height effected by nutrition

11

incomplete dominance

occurs when the heterozygote is intermediate between the two homozygotes
-CC x SS= CS
-curly hair x straight hair = wavy hair

12

codominance

occurs when alleles are equally expressed in heterozygote
- AA x BB = AB
-type A blood x type B blood= type AB blood

13

sex linked traits

traits controlled by genes on the sex chromosomes
-x-linked are carried on the X chromosome
-y linked are carried on the Y chromosome

14

duchenne muscular dystrophy

is characterized by wasting of muscles and death by age 20

15

fragile X syndrome

is the most common cause of inherited mental impairment

16

hemphilia

is characterized by the absence of particular clotting factors; blood clots very slowly or not at all

17

tay-sachs disease

lack of enzyme that breaks down fatty acid proteins in lysosomes results in accumulation

18

cysitc fibrosis

Cl- ions do not pass normally thru a cell membrane, resulting in thick mucus in lungs and other places, often causing infections

19

sickle-cell disease

red blood cells are sickle shaped rather than biconcave, resulting in clogged blood vessels

20

marfan syndrome

defect in the production of the elastic connective tissue protein fibrillan; results in dislocated lens, long limbs and fingers, caved in chest, and weak wall of aorta

21

huntington disease

huntington protein has too many gluatamine amino acids, leading to the progressive degeneration of brain cells

22

polypeptide

many protein